Leadership comparison paper

Leadership comparison paper

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP CONSTRUCT 11

Interview/Annotated Bibliography Comparison. Compare your findings from your annotated bibliography to your findings from your interview. Summarize key point then compare and contrast the two sources of information. Your analysis will include the key findings (usually three to five) that you have learned the most from and will use when developing your leadership development plan. Submit your three to five-page comparison using the like provide in the Lesson #6 Folder.

Below is my annotated bibliography and further down is interviews.

Annotated Bibliography on Transformational Leadership Construct

Introduction

Transformational leadership approach is hinged on causing change in social systems and in individuals. The ideal form of this leadership approach creates positive and valuable change in the followers with the end result of developing these followers into leaders. In this leadership construct, leaders work with their followers to identify the needed change or transformations, create a vision which guides the change through massive inspiration, and implementing the change in tandem with the commitment of the followers. Transformational leadership construct has four major elements; inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation. In this annotated bibliography, we look at ten articles on transformational leadership construct.

Bellé, N. (2013). Leading to make a difference: A field experiment on the performance effects of transformational leadership, perceived social impact, and public service motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory24(1), 109-136.

Research analysts are investigating job design as one of the factors that impacts the performance impacts of transformational leadership in the public sector. The author uses self-persuasion and beneficiary contact in enhancing the impacts of transformational leadership on public worker performance(Bellé, 2013). The sample used were 138 nursing practitioners drawn from a public health facility in Italy. The author established that the performance impacts if transformational leadership combined with the interaction impact of transformational leadership promoted motivation in public sector organizations.

Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly24(1), 270-283.

In this knowledge-rich article, Braun, Peus, Weisweiler and Frey (2013) critically evaluate the interrelationship between transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance. In spite of repeated calls for deliberate variance or differentiation between team and individual phases of analysis, leadership research based on well-grounded theory concerning multiple levels is limited or scarce (Braun, Peus, Weisweiler, & Frey, 2013). The authors sought to fill this existing gap by conducting an analysis of the relations between the transformational leadership construct, trust in team and supervisors, job satisfaction, and performance of teams through multilevel analysis.

The authors sampled 360 employees drawn from 39 different academic teams (Braun, Peus, Weisweiler, & Frey, 2013). From the analysis of the results, transformational leadership was reported to have a positive relationship with the job satisfaction of the followers and as team levels, and objective performance by teams. The link between personal perceptions of transformational leadership of the supervisor and the amount of trust in the team. The authors mention that trust does not affect the relation between team perceptions of the transformational leadership of the supervisor and team performance. This article is important in understanding how team performance is influenced by the transformational leadership features from supervisors.

Cavazotte, F., Moreno, V., & Hickmann, M. (2012). Effects of leader intelligence, personality and emotional intelligence on transformational leadership and managerial performance. The Leadership Quarterly23(3), 443-455.

Cavazotte, Moreno and Hickmann (2012) are exploring the impacts of emotional intelligence, personality of a leader and their intelligence on transformational leadership and how they can perform as leaders. Intelligence, personality and emotional intelligence are important traits of leadership and how managers perform in the context of an organization. To establish these connections, the authors collected data from 134 middle level managers from a large company in Brazil operating in the energy sector.

From the analysis, the authors established that effectiveness of leadership, as determined by the achievement of organizational results, is direct function of the transformational behaviours of the leader (Cavazotte, Moreno, & Hickmann, 2012). If considered separately, emotional intelligence is statistically linked to transformational leadership, when personality and ability were controlled parameters, the impact because insignificant.

García-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of business research65(7), 1040-1050.

In this journal of business research, García-Morales, Jiménez-Barrionuevo and Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez (2012) analyzes how transformational leadership influences organizational performance through organizational innovation and continuous learning. Despite that transformational leadership and organizational learning and innovation- which are indirectly interrelated, are very significant for improving the performance of an organization, past research studies have not explored them.

Through conducting an analysis of 168 firms in Spain, the study confirms empirically that transformational leadership has influences on organizational performance through learning and innovation. Firstly, the study establishes that transformational leadership significantly influences the performance of an organization positively through innovation and learning. Secondly, the authors establish that organizational learning positively impacts organizational performance, both directly and indirectly through innovation. Lastly, García-Morales, Jiménez-Barrionuevo and Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez (2012) establish that organizational innovation impacts performance in a positive way.

Herman, H. M., & Chiu, W. C. (2014). Transformational leadership and job performance: A social identity perspective. Journal of Business Research67(1), 2827-2835.

In this article, Herman and Chiu (2014) provide a model which explain the underlying procedure through which transformational leadership features impact creative behaviour and organizational employee behaviours. By sampling 250 front line workers and their immediate supervisors who work in 5 different banks in China, the results analysis show that individual-focused and group-focused transformational leadership traits exert varied influences on group and individual identification. This study is important because it looks at the impact of transformational leadership on job performance with a social identity perspective- individuals and groups.

Hutchinson, M., & Jackson, D. (2013). Transformational leadership in nursing: towards a more critical interpretation. Nursing inquiry20(1), 11-22.

Effective nurse leadership is important and essential for workplace enhancement and achieving optimal patient results (Hutchinson, & Jackson, 2013). The authors in this article review more than ten years of nursing scholarship on the transformational leadership model and its empirical evidence. The authors further interrogate the uncritical adoption of the transformational leadership model has led to a limited interpretation of leadership in nursing.

Given the limitations of the transformational model, the authors push for embracing new ways through which nursing leadership can be thought (Hutchinson, & Jackson, 2013). This article is significant in demonstrating why transformational leadership in nursing is positive.

Moriano, J. A., Molero, F., Topa, G., & Mangin, J. P. L. (2014). The influence of transformational leadership and organizational identification on intrapreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal10(1), 103-119.

What influence does transformational leadership and organizational identification have on intrapreneurship? Moriano, Molero, Topa and Mangin (2014) looks at this relationship. Managers play a significant role in supporting and encouraging the initiatives of individual staff to explore new opportunities, improve work process or develop new goods and services for the benefit of the business. In this study, the authors are examining the influence of manager styles of leadership on employee entrepreneurial behaviour and the meditating function of organizational identification (Moriano, Molero, Topa, & Mangin, 2014).

To analyze the data collected from 186 staff members drawn from different private and public organizations in Spain, the authors used Partial Least Squares. The outcomes indicate that transformational leadership has a positive effect on worker entrepreneurial behaviour, while transactional leadership construct negative influence the behaviour. Further, these influences were found to be partially catalysed by organizational identification (Moriano, Molero, Topa, & Mangin, 2014).

This article is significant because it explores reasons why employees can be productive. Most employers and managers want employees who can come up with new and innovative ideas for their organizations. However, most times the leadership style can negatively affect this advancement. When managers embrace the transformational leadership construct, such ideas can come forth.

Paulsen, N., Callan, V. J., Ayoko, O., & Saunders, D. (2013). Transformational leadership and innovation in an R&D organization experiencing major change. Journal of Organizational Change Management26(3), 595-610.

Paulsen, Callan, Ayoko and Saunders (2013) looks at transformational leadership and innovation in a research and development organization going through major change. Change management is an important component of business success, especially in the modern age where innovation is key. The study examines how transformational leaders influence research and development team results around being more creative and innovative (Paulsen, Callan, Ayoko, & Saunders, 2013). Specifically the study aimed at focusing on the role played by group identification in mediating innovative results.

From the data collected for analysis, the authors established that perceived support for creativity and innovation and group identification exerted equal independent impacts in fully mediating the link between team innovation and transformational leadership (Paulsen, Callan, Ayoko, & Saunders, 2013). The study is important to the topic because it points out how transformational leadership style impacts team climate and identification, and consequently innovation in the context of research and development teams. The leadership offers better results in creating an innovative organization.

Wang, C. J., Tsai, H. T., & Tsai, M. T. (2014). Linking transformational leadership and employee creativity in the hospitality industry: The influences of creative role identity, creative self-efficacy, and job complexity. Tourism Management40, 79-89.

In this study, the authors are connecting transformational leadership and the creativity of employees in the hotel industry. Through an integration of cognitive theories, creativity and transformational leadership, the authors explore the links among transformational leadership, job complexity and creativity, creative self-efficacy and creative role identity. The findings indicate that transformational leadership of supervisors positively impacted employee creative self-efficacy and creativity.

The complexity of job was established to moderate the link between employee creative self-efficacy and creative role identity, and the relation between employee creative self-efficacy and their creativity. The study is significant because it shows how transformational leadership positively impacts creativity of employees in the hospitality industry.

Yasin Ghadi, M., Fernando, M., & Caputi, P. (2013). Transformational leadership and work engagement: The mediating effect of meaning in work. Leadership & Organization Development Journal34(6), 532-550.

How does the transformational leadership construct influence work engagement? Yasin Ghadi, Fernando and Caputi (2013) look at this relationship and its mediating impact of meaning in work. Perceptions of work meaning, work engagement and transformational leadership were analyzed in an empirical study based on a sample of 530 full-time workers in Australia. The findings from a structural equation modelling demonstrate that transformational leadership construct impacts the work engagement attributes of followers.

More significantly, the direct link between transformational leadership and engagement at work was established to be partially mediated by the perceptions of employees of meaning in work. With the global population of unengaged staff increasing, the study is important in helping reduce the billions of losses in productivity occasioned by lack of engagement by providing human resource managers with new ways of developing training and learning programs that could promote transformational leadership features in the workplace.

Zhu, W., Newman, A., Miao, Q., & Hooke, A. (2013). Revisiting the mediating role of trust in transformational leadership effects: Do different types of trust make a difference? The Leadership Quarterly24(1), 94-105.

What role does trust play in transformational leadership? This study is important in understanding the mediating role of trust in transformational leadership impacts. The study is examining the mediating impacts of affective and cognitive trust on the relationship between perceptions of followers of transformational leadership behaviour and their work results. The authors obtained data from 318 supervisor-follower dyads from a manufacturing company in China.

They modelled the link between transformational leadership and work outcomes of the subordinates, which include job performance, organizational citizenship characters, and affective organizational behaviour. The findings show the significance of affective trust as mechanism capable of translating transformational leadership into positive work results for the organization.

References

Bellé, N. (2013). Leading to make a difference: A field experiment on the performance effects of transformational leadership, perceived social impact, and public service motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory24(1), 109-136.

Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 270-283.

Cavazotte, F., Moreno, V., & Hickmann, M. (2012). Effects of leader intelligence, personality and emotional intelligence on transformational leadership and managerial performance. The Leadership Quarterly23(3), 443-455.

García-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of business research65(7), 1040-1050.

Herman, H. M., & Chiu, W. C. (2014). Transformational leadership and job performance: A social identity perspective. Journal of Business Research67(1), 2827-2835.

Hutchinson, M., & Jackson, D. (2013). Transformational leadership in nursing: towards a more critical interpretation. Nursing inquiry20(1), 11-22.

Moriano, J. A., Molero, F., Topa, G., & Mangin, J. P. L. (2014). The influence of transformational leadership and organizational identification on intrapreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal10(1), 103-119.

Paulsen, N., Callan, V. J., Ayoko, O., & Saunders, D. (2013). Transformational leadership and innovation in an R&D organization experiencing major change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 26(3), 595-610.

Wang, C. J., Tsai, H. T., & Tsai, M. T. (2014). Linking transformational leadership and employee creativity in the hospitality industry: The influences of creative role identity, creative self-efficacy, and job complexity. Tourism Management, 40, 79-89.

Yasin Ghadi, M., Fernando, M., & Caputi, P. (2013). Transformational leadership and work engagement: The mediating effect of meaning in work. Leadership & Organization Development Journal34(6), 532-550.

Zhu, W., Newman, A., Miao, Q., & Hooke, A. (2013). Revisiting the mediating role of trust in transformational leadership effects: Do different types of trust make a difference? The Leadership Quarterly24(1), 94-105.

Interview 1

1. How do you define leadership?

Leadership is being able to accomplish the following:

1. The ability to clearly understand and articulate the goal.

2. The confidence to be out in front and show the way to the goal.

3. The ability to convince people to follow as an act of their own free choice.

4. The ability to inspire people to achieve their full potential.

2. Do you see leadership as a process or more dependent on the inherent qualities of the leader?

Leadership and management go hand-in-hand; management is the set of processes required to get your job done, where leadership is a set of desired behaviors needed to accomplish the items listed in question 1. These behaviors can be learned and improved on but require certain well-developed character traits. Great leaders do have additional skills, abilities, and opportunities that most leaders will never have but it doesn’t prevent a person from becoming a “good leader”.

3. Were you ever under the leadership of a toxic or unethical leader? If so, please describe this leader.

Yes, but I did not stay there very long. He lacked the ability to lead, he got his position through questionable means and having a PHD; apologies to your instructor but the man was the poster child for the slogan, ‘Those who can do, and those who can’t teach (or get another degree)’. The seven managers under him (including myself) all left under his term and he was fired and removed from the building under police escort a year or so later. There was an up side to this in that it made me take a hard look at my own leadership and work hard to become a good leader.

4. Please describe your personal leadership style.

I don’t have a ‘style” of leadership because the situation determines my behavior. That being said, these ‘behaviors’ include:

1. Decisiveness in my actions

2. Good listener to make sure I understand the situation

3. Keep my commitments once made

4. Consistency in how I handle situations, there are no surprises

5. Show good judgment in resolving conflict

6. Fairness (this doesn’t always mean treating everyone the same)

7. Give appropriate recognition for both big and small accomplishments

8. Remove work barriers that prevent others from doing their jobs

9. Equip subordinates with the tools, training and support required to get the job done

10. Emphasize principals, not rules

11. Be a Champion of those who follow me

5. Please describe a situation when you felt you were leading at your very best. Please describe what you did and the outcome.

Good leadership is a continuous effort and isn’t defined my one action or situation. I have learned from every assignment and possession I’ve filled. My last position before my retirement was the General Manager (CEO) of a small public utility. There I cast the vision and lead the effort to develop and implement a long term Strategic Plan for the company; this included everyone from the Board of Directors down to the newest maintenance worker. This was a living document, the goals changed as they were achieved but the vision and core values never changed and continuously re-emphasized. The company when from being an unknown entity, to one that was recognized as a leader in the industry and the example to follow for those who looked for continuous improvement.

6. Describe what you see as most important for effective leadership.

An effective leader must be able to develop, communicate and focus on a vision for those he is leading.

7. What leadership qualities do you look for when hiring someone?

I’m looing for a person of good character, things like intelligence and energy are good to have, but without integrity they can destroy a company.

8. What is the role that leadership plays to a manager?

You manage things, you lead people; therefore the principles that people hold in high esteem is the major role of leadership. The ten principles I lead by are: 1. Loyalty (self-sacrifice) 2. Unselfishness (thinking of others first) 3. Commitment (keeping agreements) 4. Life Balance (meeting my physical, emotional and spiritual needs) 5. Honor (showing deference to age and experience and being grateful to those how have come before us) 6. Show compassion to others 7. Be true and faithful to your family (if you can’t be faithful to those you love, how can you be faithful to a job or others) 8. Show respect for others (both property and privacy) 9. Have integrity (be trustworthy, truthful, and honest) 10. Be content and enjoy what you have (don’t envy others)

9. How do you lead through change?

There are many forces that demand change: economics, technology, social, environmental, political, etc. and there are just as many forces resisting the need for change: fear, tradition, vested interest, no perceived need, etc. To successfully lead through any change you much first change a person’s or organization’s behavior, then you must change their attitude toward that change. You must first cast the vision for the change; identify and share the principles requiring the change; only then can you begin to develop the procedures and strategies to achieve the change.

10. In your option what is the most difficult part of a change or transitional period?

The hardest part of the change is not in getting people to change their behavior but in getting them to change their attitude. The next most difficult challenge is not letting people emphasize the procedures and methods used to achieve the change while they forget the principle behind the change.

11. What is the most difficult part of being a leader?

Keeping your conviction to the principles you lead by, but understand the difference between a principle and a preference, you must stand firm on the first and go with the flow on the second. A simple example of this is ‘I want nice closes’ verses ‘I will be clean and presentable’.

12. How would you go about getting cohesion among a team who disagree?

Again I will go back to the paradox of change, first I will work on an individual’s behavior and then get him to change his attitude; I then will work on getting the group to change their behavior. My goal is always to get the whole group to change their attitude which is the most difficult to achieve.

13. How often do you feel it’s necessary to meet with your team?

I will meet with each individual team member as offend as they feel the need to see me. As a group I meet with the leadership team on an as needed basics; I meet each subordinate leader individually for a Weekly Accountable Meeting (WAM), I ask the same three questions; 1. What did you accomplish this week? 2. Any problems? 3. What are you going to accomplish next week? This has served me well in keeping me informed, solving problems before they get too big, and holding my leaders accountable to me and their subordinates.

14. How would you go about praising a team member in public?

I deal with other leaders that are not typically interested in personal reconnection, however, I always make sure that the Board of Directors knows what each team is accomplishing on a large scale and I give timely feedback and reconnection to the leaders under me in the WAM’s. My subordinate leaders have authority to recognize their employees as deemed appropriate.

15. Who do you look at as a mentor? What in your mind makes this person a good mentor?

I’m retired now, so part of my last position, I choose to be the mentor to the younger leaders, not just to those in my company, but to others in the industry by teaching the principles I lead by at conferences and other training venues. I desire to pass down knowledge I’ve received from my own experience and received from others the next generation of leaders. So speaking only for myself, the desire and willingness to do this makes for a good mentor.

16. What about yourself makes you a good leader? What characteristics or traits?

I’m willing to be the guy out front, be in authority, take responsibility, take the hit for others, seize the opportunity, take criticism, stand my ground, do what is right, be decisive, take action, set the example, inspire trust in others, be bold, be determined and most of all able to catch a vision and turn it into a reality.

I depend on the following eight character traits in accomplishing goals and developing people: Integrity, Courage, Discipline, Loyalty, Diligence, Humility, Optimism and Conviction. To define these is a whole separate topic.

17. What sort of leader would your team say that you are?

A man who not only leads but also lives by his principles.

Interview 2

LEADERSHIP INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

1. How do you define leadership?

Simple, set an example by publishing achievable standards. Constantly ensure that I am armed with the knowledge to accurately lead and advise, do what is right morally and ethically when charged to do so. Most importantly, know when to be led and stay open to others’ thoughts and ideas by constantly keeping a line of communication. Proper training and leadership of a subordinate ensures continuity.

2. Do you see leadership as a process or more dependent on the inherent qualities of the leader?

I see leadership as a mixture of all. The process is important to ensure necessary experience is built to establish basic trust and confidence in a leader’s key skills and attributes, however I don’t believe you can stamp a timeline on it. Inherently, some people possess more talent and natural ability to lead. Establishing a timeline to “become a leader” can be toxic in these cases. Some are just naturally born with the qualities to lead.

3. Were you ever under the leadership of a toxic or unethical leader? If so, please describe this

leader.

I have leaders that I would consider “borderline”. I primarily blame that on a lack of knowledge or ignorance to published standards and natural human instinct to know the difference between right and wrong.

4. Please describe your personal leadership style.

Personally I believe in leading by example, instilling a culture of thinking “out and up”, and enhancing personal/professional development. When my subordinates are successful, and we’re achieving the organization’s intent to a set standard, I feel successful. Most importantly, I believe in approaching each subordinate with careful empathy, and provide detailed feedback IAW performance.

5. Please describe a situation when you felt you were leading at your very best. Please describe

what you did and the outcome.

I had an experience where I was typically charged with leading 39 subordinates, but was called up last minute to execute a position one level up, and now was responsible for leading 131 subordinates- most who I’ve never worked with previously. My reputation assisted a bit in being successful, but my knowledge and expertise in the task at hand commanded support and execution which ultimately achieved a successful collective victory.

6. Describe what you see as most important for effective leadership.

Energy, enthusiasm, and a desire to continue to progress to higher levels of leadership.

7. What leadership qualities do you look for when hiring someone?

Outstanding performance recorded on official evaluations, and great interpersonal communication skills nested with both energy and enthusiasm. When conducting an interview, I find it impressive when a prospective employee can articulate his/her desire to sit in my seat without seeming conceded or genuine.

8. What is the role that leadership plays to a manager?

Managers are bosses who serve in the position by virtue of power or grade. Anyone can be a “boss”. It’s just a title. A real leader will eventually have a population of subordinates that “want” to work for them. Obviously a leader can’t please everyone, but can still garner respect at a minimum.

9. How do you lead through change?

By preparing for the change as much as possible prior to execution, and over communicating perspective changes as much as possible or able wherever and whenever possible. More importantly, I like to execute change in a phased concept nested with minor changes being phased into normal operational procedures.

10. In your option what is the most difficult part of a change or transitional period?

Everyone will always criticize the “way it used to be”. I feel people do this as comfort is nice- learning something new is time consuming; that’s why I believe the phased approach is the most appropriate.

11. What is the most difficult part of being a leader?

You’re constantly judged by those you lead. If you slip even a bit, subordinates commonly don’t forget it.

12. How would you go about getting cohesion among a team who disagree?

Ensuring that the problem set is clearly defined, but more importantly make the best decision for the organization and explain in detail why that’s the best decision. If a subordinate disagrees that point, then we can agree to disagree, however at least they are informed as to why we did something a certain way.

13. How often do you feel it’s necessary to meet with your team?

In most cases, weekly meetings clearly defining ongoing projects and briefing about emerging requirements/intent is necessary. The rest of the week is spent interacting with the team and spot-checking work to achieve the desired intent. A meeting at the end of the work week is nice to close out and ensure everything’s been completed.

14. How would you go about praising a team member in public?

Giving appropriate recognition when due. Perhaps in a formal setting, but I’ve learned over the years that a simple “great job” in front of the individuals’ closest work mates is much more effective. Great for the person you’re offering kudos to, and enhances productivity from the rest of the field.

15. Who do you look at as a mentor? What in your mind makes this person a good mentor?

(Optional)

Past leaders that I no longer serve with/for. They have an investment in leading me from the past, however they have no requirement to remain biased. I see them as being more open and honest and will constantly give me the ground truth. What does it hurt them not to?

16. What about yourself makes you a good leader? What characteristics or traits? (Optional)

17. What sort of leader would your team say that you are?

Meticulous, energetic, enthusiastic with a genuine care for the mission first, my employees second, and myself lastly. I would like to think that my constant attention to mastering the very basic black and white of any organization makes you much more affective in negotiating the “gray” that constantly rears it’s ugly face.


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