“Organizational collective motivation (OCM) is an emergent area of research and practice, which enables leaders to address both individual and collective aspects of motivating employees across the organization. OCM offers the opportunity to help leaders motivate employees collectively in organizations and develop the connectedness needed to work together to achieve success.”
Organizational Collective Motivation A New Framework for Motivating Employees in Organizations
“… collectively orientated behavior is frequently lauded as vital to organiza- tional effectiveness”—Staw, 1984
The workplace we have known for centu- ries is shifting. Organizations have become more global over the last several decades, and organizations utilize a workforce of knowledge workers working in virtual workplaces. These virtual organizations face the risk of losing organizational inter- connections, including those connections with coworkers and organizational leaders. Organizational leaders have traditionally connected and motivated their workforce with daily personal interactions focused on encouraging individuals to improve employee performance and organizational effectiveness to achieve organizational goals (Latham, 2007; Staw, 1984).
A new challenge is how do you moti- vate not only individuals but the whole organization collectively where individuals, teams, and working groups may not be in the same location? Organizational collec- tive motivation (OCM) is an emergent area of research and practice, which enables leaders to address both individual and collective aspects of motivating employ- ees across the organization. OCM offers the opportunity to help leaders motivate employees’ collectively in organizations and develop the connectedness needed to work together to achieve success. This arti- cle provides a working definition of OCM and the elements that can build OCM. We offer recommendations for applying OCM that can help leaders motivate their employees collectively across the whole
organization to succeed, resulting in posi- tive change and a thriving organization.
Organizational Collective Motivation
Collective motivation was first conceived in work settings in the early 1980s (Lawler, 1982). This early work is based on indi- vidual beliefs and centers around the expectancy theory of motivation where an individual contributes to the collec- tive because they believe they will receive intrinsic (recognition, advancement) or extrinsic (pay, job security) rewards.
Organizational Collective Motivation (OCM) was first coined by Black (1994) and founded on individual based beliefs of collective motivation. Black studied collective motivation at three levels of analysis: workgroup (unit), department, and organization. Black’s study is the first time a researcher operationalized collective motivation as a construct in the “psycho- logical, organizational, and/or motivational literature” (p. 115). Her findings confirmed collective motivation is a distinct psycho- logical construct existing at all levels in an organization. She also found that individu- als and collectives are collectively motivated to contribute to an organization based on the expectancy of individual or organiza- tional outcomes (intrinsic or extrinsic). Additionally, her work showed that employ- ees who see themselves as members of the organization and can identify with the organization are collectively motivated to contribute. This expectancy of effort and identification with the organization were found to be significant elements of OCM.
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Other researchers show collective motivation is based on collective beliefs. Collective beliefs are shared within the collective (organization’s members) and define the collective identity while indi- vidual beliefs are what exist within the individual. This article extends the original work done by Black by building in shared beliefs of collective motivation with indi- vidually based beliefs to develop a more comprehensive meaning OCM.
A Case Study
The case study takes place in a govern- ment (public sector) organization with members of a training program who are currently in leadership positions and on track to become senior management leaders. This organization was studied because it has long history of continuously transforming itself and its workforce to meet global demands and technological advancements. Data were collected through 16 in-depth interviews and over 250 pages of memos. The interviews were open- ended to learn more about the meaning of OCM with a focus on the interviewee, his/ her co- workers and direct reports, and the motivation to contribute to the collective. Through comparative and content analysis of the data, the meaning and elements of OCM emerged. The meaning of OCM developed in this study expands current research to include both individual and col- lective beliefs:
OCM is a distinct and separate moti- vational construct that exists in all lev- els of the organization and is based on individual and collective beliefs. OCM is developed from both individual and collective motivational aspects. These aspects emerge as individuals and the collective work towards organizational goals and are influenced by organi- zational, job, and leadership aspects. OCM develops from 19 motivating elements that are common to both individual and collective motiva- tional aspects.
The meaning and elements will be dis- cussed in the next two sections.
The Meaning of OCM
Data analysis showed people are collectively motivated to contribute to the organiza- tion based upon five aspects: individual, collective, organizational, job, and leader- ship. The meaning of OCM is presented in Figure 1, which will be discussed next.
OCM develops from both individual and collective beliefs, which set the conditions for individuals and the col- lective to be motivated to contribute to the organization’s performance because participants discussed both types of beliefs. For example:
You have to find out what motivates that individual person, because what motivates one person to better
themselves, and to perform for the organization, is not the same as the person sitting next to them.
But we had the same motivation at the same time. We were going to succeed. And everybody that came down that initial—especially the first six months when we grew rapidly, we all were motivated to make sure that the organization succeeded, and that the transition from Fort Monmouth to Aberdeen was going to be a success.
With the two belief bases established for OCM, each of the five aspects were analyzed to determine how the aspect developed, affected, or influenced OCM. Findings show individual aspects influ- enced individuals to be collectively motivated to contribute to the organiza- tion. Collective aspects also influenced groups to be collectively motivated to contribute to the organization and develop shared motivational states. This is new to motivational research since the limited research on OCM developed from either individually based or group based beliefs, but not both. Individual and collective aspects were determined to be further influenced by organizational, job, and lead- ership aspects. Using examples from data collected, all five aspects and their contribu- tion to the understanding how to best apply OCM will be discussed next.
Figure 1. The Meaning of OCM
29Organizational Collective Motivation: A New Framework for Motivating Employees in Organizations
Individual aspects were found to develop OCM within three areas. The first area is individual identity, which reflects the motivations of individuals to contribute to the organization based on who they are and how they identify with the organiza- tion (collective). One participant described, “It’s my personal work ethic, and I will just always strive very hard,” and another “You had to look at what was right for the bigger organization, and that’s typically one of my touchstones.” Employee voice emerged in this aspect. Having a “voice” is a motivator for individuals, has been suggested as a motivator for collectives, and is positively related with an employee’s ability to iden- tify and see themselves in the organization. For example:
So, I think everybody felt like they were an important player, they had a voice, they were being listened to— even if you didn’t do what they recom- mended you at least got a chance to say it and somebody considered it.
The second area is individual commitment to the organization and is shown by giving extra effort and making personal sacrifices for achieving organizational goals. Extra effort is characterized by Bass (1985) as the work an employee does beyond the expecta- tions of the contract with their leadership. Participants shared:
It was just a high-performing orga- nization that everybody’s morale seemed to be high, and so folks went the extra mile for things.
It was overly, to the point where I took it so personally to get those vehicles out that I made a lot of life choices with my family that I’m still paying for today.
Commitment to the organization also developed from leadership action and support for individuals. This is because leaders who support what an employee believes about one’s self while also develop- ing the importance of one’s contributions to the collective, enhances an individual’s collective motivation to contribute to the
organization’s well-being and success. One participant stated:
At the time, my [leader] sat down with me and said “This is what I need you to do. You need to take control, and you need to be able to do this.” And he kinda motivated me that way, and I think that’s what drove me, it was like he had faith that I could do it.
The third area is individual value of effort that reflects the motivation to contribute based on the value of the outcome seen from engagement with the organization. The expected outcomes of effort could have intrinsic or extrinsic value for the individ- ual and analysis showed intrinsic value as meeting individual goals, career growth, or feeling worthy, and extrinsic value as mon- etary or being recognized for their work.
I guess when I know my contribu- tions are counting, I know that, not that I have to be physically or verbally told that, you know, what you’re doing is good, when I can see it myself and I can make sense of it and I know what I’m doing is contributing to the overall good of the organization or benefiting the [customer] or, you know, somehow it shows what I’m doing is worth something.
Collective aspects were found to support OCM within three areas. The first area, collective identity, develops from group norms and shared values. Analysis of our interviews showed how individuals and the collective were motivated by the behaviors and attitudes of the collective, which reflect the social norms of the collective (Shamir, 1990). One participant shared:
I mean, during the first several years of it, it was just—everyone was so focused and worked so many hours and people made fun that all you’re doing is making a bunch of brief- ing charts and you’re not building anything, but the dedication and the motivation was unbelievable and I really think that those that may not have felt that originally just seeing the majority of the people that did that
were so dedicated and so loyal and wanted this to become something, I think it just brought other people along with them, you know, because you saw so many dedicating so much of their own time to accomplishing the same vision.
These social norms manifested themselves from social groundwork and social sup- port (Susimetsa, 2006). Analysis showed social groundwork is from coworkers who are dedicated, excited, and show mutual respect within the collective. Social support was seen from one participant when they referred to being motivated to contribute to the organization by coworkers who help each other and produce effort for the collec- tive. For example:
There were over 80 people driven toward success. Each sub-organiza- tion worked collectively. There was no “This is my team, that’s your team.” It was like 80 people all push- ing towards whatever goal made the whole office successful.
The second area is collective commitment and came from collective efficacy, group cohesion, shared vision, collective goals, collective empowerment, and leadership support for the collective. Collective goals, such as fielding certain vehicles, drove commitment: “We had a very consistent goal, [to] field lifesaving capability, and everybody was on the same page through- out the [program management office].” The shared beliefs and bonds of the collective that they can accomplish goals (collective efficacy and group cohesion) emerged from data that supports concepts and research on collective motivation. For example:
. . . It was the end of the fiscal year, which was also crazy. But we had the same motivation at the same time. We were going to succeed…especially the first six months when we grew rapidly, we all were motivated to make sure that the organization succeeded.
It was almost that we circled the wagons, and we weren’t going to let the negativity from the other parts of the organization seep into our group. We had to realize that there were a lot
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of negative aspects that could drag us down, and we were just going to circle the wagons and not let it infiltrate.
The third area was collective actions and reflects the actions the collective takes to contribute to the organization. Actions discovered included collaboration, collec- tive engagement, and the producing of
organizational outcomes. One participant discussed collaboration to develop an organization outcome by saying, “You saw people collaborating that never collaborated and hated each other starting to collaborate because there was a common cause.”
These individual and collective aspects form from individual and collective beliefs and are the direct motivators that contrib- ute to the organization’s success. Further analysis determined these two aspects are influenced by three additional aspects: organization, leadership, and the job itself that we will briefly highlight.
Organizational aspects include why the organization exists, how it is perceived, and how it functions to achieve its goals. This includes understanding the organiza- tion’s mission and vision, which are crucial because they define the organization’s purpose, why it exists, create a shared understanding of the future, and enable the development of collective goals (Lawler, 2006). Participants in this case study shared that collective goals need to be clear, challenging, and focused.
A positive, professional perception of the organization, internally and externally, was also shown to motivate the individual and the collective to contribute. One par- ticipant discussed how being a member of a public organization comes with certain expectations and responsibilities that may not be viewed the same in a private organization “as government employees
we are stewards of those tax payer dollars, and if those dollars are wasted, then that’s a problem.” Developing and maintaining a positive view of the public sector is one of the reasons the individual and collec- tive are motivated to perform for a public organization.
Collective and individual motivations are two outcomes of the leadership’s ability to motivate individuals and collectives to perform and accomplish goals. Leadership aspects include leaders who were directive and effective at accomplishing goals, trans- formational, and open-minded. As one participant said, “I think it was the leader” because he was “open to everybody’s ideas.” Leaders who are also trustworthy and respected motivated employees and the collective to contribute to the organization: “… We had extremely strong leadership that was well respected and subordinates need to know that what their leader is telling them is the truth.”
Transformational leadership includes attributes of charisma, inspirational leader- ship, consideration of the individual, and intellectual stimulation, which are used
by the leader to motivate employees to be concerned less about oneself and more focused on achievements of the group or collective. Transformational leadership drives collective motivation because an employee identifies with their leader and their leader identifies with the organiza- tion, team or group goals, and values (Bass & Bass, 2008). For example:
It’s developing the people reporting to me so that they can go forth and do better things for other people. I think that’s just what a good leader does. That’s how we can contribute. That’s how I’ll be the best. That’s how the organization will be the best.
Job aspects discovered include the way a job is designed, how individuals and the collective view the job, and align with job design theory. One participant dis- cussed how their job developed intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli to motivate them individually and as part of the collective. This resulted in leaders knowing they were responsible for working on the big- gest and most important program: “The number one, I think we knew that—part of it we knew that this was the biggest program. This is the direction in which we were going; from a big team effort.” Another participant discussed how a new job motivated them to contribute because they had been so beaten down, and this job was “a new, exciting adventure. I had never done anything like this before.” Data also showed how working on a project important to the organization, motivated the collective to come together and contrib- uted to developing a new office.
The next section presents the 19 ele- ments of OCM developed in this study as a component of the meaning and what it takes to build OCM.
The Elements of OCM
The elements of OCM represent the com- mon motivators for both the individual and the collective in organizations. These elements are what influence the individual and collective to be contributors to the
Motivated employees will give extra effort to the organization because they are motivated from an individual aspect and collective aspect for the entire organization to succeed. The workforce will engage at all levels because their needs are being met. If the whole organization is collectively motivated to achieve organizational goals, this will keep the workforce motivated whether they work together in person, day-to-day, or virtually.
31Organizational Collective Motivation: A New Framework for Motivating Employees in Organizations
organization. Nineteen OCM elements were found and aligned into four broad categories (organizational influences, beliefs, commitment, and collective reason) shown in Table 1. Of the 19 elements, six developed from literature and are italicized in Table 1. These six elements are founda- tional to motivating individuals and the collective and include job design, norms and values, identification with the orga- nization, goal setting and commitment, expectancy of effort and outcome, and rewards—intrinsic and extrinsic.
The additional 13 elements of OCM developed from analysis of the interview data and aligned to the four broad catego- ries. These elements include leadership, organizational climate, organizational culture, organizational vision and mis- sion, situation affecting the organization, group cohesion, collective goals, collective efficacy, individual, collective, and organi- zational beliefs, and purpose beyond self.
Organizational Collective Motivation Framework
The Organizational Collective Motivation (OCM) framework was created to guide leaders on key aspects needed to develop a workforce that is both individually and collectively motivated. An organization whose workforce is both individually and collectively motivated will thrive because its members will be engaged and com- mitted to organizational success. Leaders who use the framework and implement methods to operationalize the 19 elements have the opportunity to get projects done more efficiently, organizational change to be less traumatic, and fiscal goals to be met because the whole organization is motivated to understanding and achiev- ing these goals. Finally, OCM is a positive approach to help leaders focus on leverag- ing those motivations that bring meaning and purpose to individuals and collectives within organizations. Figure 2 shows the two main concepts (the meaning and ele- ments of OCM) of the OCM framework and illustrates the relationships among the concepts.
Table 1. The 19 Elements of OCM Developed in this Study
• Job design. • Leadership. • Organizational climate. • Organizational culture. • Organizational vision and mission. • Situations affecting the organization.
• Collective efficacy. • Norms and values. • Identification with the organization. • Individual, collective, and
• Goal setting and commitment. • Group cohesion. • Empowerment. • Engagement. • Collaboration. • Collective goals.
• Expectancy of effort and outcome. • Rewards—intrinsic and extrinsic. • Purpose beyond self.
Figure 2. The Organizational Collective Motivation (OCM) Framework
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Implications for Practice (Recommendations)
Any leader, manager, or supervisor who understands the importance of motivating employees to contribute and perform for the organization will benefit from under- standing OCM and how these elements can create successful organizations with engaged and committed employees. As organizations change in the future and become more virtual and global, it is criti- cal leaders look at all methods to connect employees and motivate them to contribute to the organization’s success on both an individual and collective base.
This is where the OCM framework can help because it consists of both indi- vidual and collective motivating elements which provide benefits to an organization by bringing the organization together to perform as a whole system. Motivated employees will give extra effort to the orga- nization because they are motivated from an individual aspect and collective aspect for the entire organization to succeed. The workforce will engage at all levels because their needs are being met. If the whole organization is collectively motivated to achieve organizational goals, this will keep the workforce motivated whether they work together in person, day-to-day, or virtually.
Next, we offer three recommendations for leaders to develop and implement OCM in their organization.
Recommendation One. Organizational leaders and members need to have an understanding of individual and collective aspects of OCM and implement methods to invoke these aspects. First, start with increasing communications with individu- als in the organization to understand what motivates them as an individual. This is important because motivation is directly linked to the performance of individuals in an organization (Latham, 2007). There are several ways to do this: » Align individual and organizational
norms and values. The organiza- tion needs to establish its norms and values which could be done through a strengths-based whole system framework such as SOAR (Stavros &
Hinrichs, 2009). SOAR stands for com- bining strengths, identifying opportuni- ties, leveraging aspirations, and using measurable results to motivate the whole. Once the group’s norms and val- ues are established, an example of how alignment could happen is to reward the individual and collective for actions that are in alignment with expected norms and values.
» Enable the individual to identify with the organization based on their role and letting them know what is expected of them. Identification should be approached from two views: self-con- cept and organizational identification. To enable self-concept, social aspects of the organization should be enhanced to help individuals identify with the organization. Examples of socialization could include casual lunch meetings or organizational outings such as picnics. Identification with the organization needs to be fostered by development of a common identity for the organiza- tion that individuals and the collective can identify with. An example of this would be for the collective to develop the aspirations or goals for the organi- zation that reflects the identity of the organization.
» Give individuals a voice in the orga- nization so they can have input and influence organizational outcomes. This can be accomplished through several methods. For example, one-on- one discussions with leadership enable individuals to be heard, focus groups enable the collective to have a voice, and have every employee participate in orga- nization’s strategy planning sessions, which SOAR is designed to do (see: www.soar-strategy.com).
» Empower individuals to make decisions for themselves and the organization. Examples of empowerment would be developing a team and giving them resources to accomplish goals. Another example would be to empower individ- uals to develop new ideas for improv- ing the organization and developing innovative projects.
» Determine motivating rewards or outcomes which set the expectancy of
individual and collective efforts. Under- standing what motivates the individual and the collective would need to be developed through continuous dia- logue. For example, if it is determined that a motivator for an individual or col- lective is to spend more time with their family, then reward them with time off rather than a cash reward.
» Develop methods to increase commit- ment from individuals in the organiza- tion through engagement. Engagement of the individual and collective increases commitment to the organiza- tion and can be accomplished in many different ways. For example, individuals can be engaged in projects for which they enjoy working or have expertise. Another example is collectives can be engaged by giving a team challenging goals and rewards for a project.
Secondly, seek to understand what moti- vates the collective and implement those items that will provide the best results for the organization. Understanding could be developed through surveys, focus groups, and/or discussions with units or teams from the organization. For example, to build group cohesion the collective may want events or projects that enable them to become cohesive. The focus of the survey or discussions should include four aspects: » Identifying social aspects of the col-
lective that they would like to see in the organization. This would help drive towards identification with the organization. The survey or discus- sion could focus on how to bring more socialization to programs and what events could help develop social aspects of the collective. For example, having a meeting someplace fun such as a park or restaurant.
» Understanding the ideal composition (skills, mix of people, etc.) of the col- lective to help foster different ideas to motivate the individual and the collec- tive. For example, the discussion could center on bringing in people from dif- ferent sectors to see and solve problems from a different perspective. They could be hired as part of the organization,
33Organizational Collective Motivation: A New Framework for Motivating Employees in Organizations
be a guest speaker, or consult with the organization. This offers fresh new insight and ideas.
» Seeking methods to build collective efficacy and group cohesion. Collective efficacy can be fostered, for example, by giving the collective challenging goals and helping them achieve them. Group cohesion can be built by imple- menting methods for the collective to be accountable to each other to help drive commitment to complete tasks. For example, the collective can have a project in which each individual is responsible and dependent upon others for success of the project.
» Determining how the collective would best like to work together as an entity. For example, the collective could deter- mine if they would like to collaborate in person, electronically, or by a combina- tion of methods. This is important as new generations of employees enter the workforce, workplaces become more virtual, and workers tele-commute and share jobs.
Recommendation Two. Leaders and members need to first understand and then develop and implement over time the 19 elements of OCM common to both individuals and the collective. As you review these 19 elements, your leadership team may already be doing many of these well and now need to focus on others. Be mindful that you just do not implement these 19 elements at once. These should be developed and nurtured over time in order to be sustained. By implementing methods to achieve these common motiva- tors, you will begin to bring about OCM and develop a focused, collaborative, and productive organization.
One example of implementing the elements of goal setting and commitment could be having the whole organization engage and collectively develop strategic goals for the organization. This creates buy- in because they are co-creating their future. This will help focus the workforce on organizational goals which can be further developed into collective and individual goals and tracked through performance
evaluations. Other examples to develop and implement the elements of OCM include: » Developing methods for collaboration
across the organization such as a col- laboration center or online collaborative tools. A collaboration center could con- sist of a place where individuals could gather to work together, and it could consist of online tools where files can be shared and boards for generating ideas. Developing alternative meth- ods beyond face-to-face collaboration will be critical for organizations to be successful.
» Implementing training classes and events in the organization which focus on building cohesion and efficacy. For example, classes in understanding how to effectively communicate and work with individuals, who are different than you, could foster cohesion because it will help strengthen relationships. An example to build efficacy would be to set up fun challenges with small teams in the organization and have them com- pete against each other. For instance, a challenge could be to see what team could develop the best representation of an organizational value.
» Creating rewards that are individual and collectively based and intrinsically and extrinsically motivating. There are many examples of individual and col- lective rewards today in organizations such as monetary and group outings. The key to this recommendation revolves around understanding what type, intrinsic or extrinsic rewards, motivates the individual and the collective.
» Bringing in individual and collective input when developing new projects and designing or redesigning jobs in the organization. For example, if a new skill in the organization is needed, bring in the collective that understands and needs this skill to help develop the job hiring package and conduct job interviews. This will enable them to have a voice in what is needed for the organization to be successful.
» Finding ways individuals and the collec- tive can identify with the organization
through social aspects. One example could be using social media with the organization to build social networks inside and outside of the workplace. Another example could be to have regular social events outside of the workplace such as a baseball league, a golf league, or picnics where people can bring their families.
Recommendation Three. As future orga- nizations become more virtual and have less in-person contact, it is a challenge to bring about an organizational transfor- mation. One organization development method (mentioned earlier), SOAR, could be used to build OCM during transforma- tion. SOAR has been used successfully in practice to change and improve organiza- tions, and we learned that SOAR does build OCM by invoking similar elements of OCM, including efficacy, goal commit- ment, intrinsic motivation, and cohesion. SOAR planning or strategy sessions can be done at any level in the organization, when needed, and be quick or long. We have had success with using SOAR in practice to develop strategic change and engagement of the workforce. Specific recommenda- tions for practitioners are to use a SOAR planning session to: » Build upon the strengths in the organi-
zation by engaging the whole organiza- tion in the transformation effort.
» Determine collective values, mission, vision, and goals for the organization by collaboratively focusing on aspirations and desired results of the organization.
» Build cohesion and commitment within the organization by developing a com- mon understanding of why the organi- zational transformation is needed.
» Create ways that enable the individual and the collective to identify with the organization from a positive organiza- tional scholarship (POS) perspective. POS is the study of positive states of organizing for individual and organi- zational success (Cameron, Quinn, & Dutton, 2003). For example, build upon positive organizational aspects that are working well to create energy and moti- vation in the organization. Focusing
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on positive consequences and positive attributes of individuals drives towards exceptional and flourishing phenomena in organizations. For more on POS, visit the Center for Positive Organiza- tions (http://positiveorgs.bus.umich.edu).
A division of the public sector studied for this article has used many of the recom- mendations in practice to include all employees in developing an organizational strategic plan, bringing different people in from different sectors to help solve problems, and stovepipes1 in the organiza- tion working towards common outcomes via a challenging project in which success requires dependency across the stovepipes. Results to date include the organization operating more collectively, people are much more engaged and committed, turnover of employees has slowed, and they are delivering projects successfully, which has resulted in more resources allocated to the organization.
The purpose of this article was to introduce you to OCM, the importance of using it to help motivate your employees, and what it takes to build and sustain it. From this case study, we were able to elevate and extend Black’s (1994) initial study by now including both individual and collective beliefs into OCM. What is new is the 19 motivating elements, defined as common to both the individual and collective, were found to develop and cultivate OCM. The OCM framework was created to present the elements of OCM and provide a way for leaders to motivate their employees to contribute to the organization.
OCM provides benefits to an organi- zation by bringing leaders and members together to perform as a whole system. Leaders need to know how to motivate their employees (individually and collectively) and bring them together to serve the orga- nization’s mission and achieve its vision.
1. An organizational structure that restricts the flow
of information to a particular department, inhibit-
ing cross organization communication.
An outcome of OCM is both understand- ing and buy-in to the organizational goals and active engagement from the whole system. This contribution helps increase organizational performance and achieves organizational goals because the whole workforce is motivated.
In today’s society, organizational performance is dependent upon employees and their motivation to engage and con- tribute to the organization. Organizations are operating virtually and globally which presents the dilemna of keeping leaders and members connected and collectively motivated to achieve success. The deeper understanding of OCM produced from this case study provides a way forward to achieve success.
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Cameron, K., Dutton, J., & Quinn, R. (2003). Positive organizational scholar- ship: Foundations of a new discipline. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Latham, G. (2007). Work motivation: His- tory, theory, research, and practice. Thou- sand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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Stavros, J., & Hinrichs, G. (2009). Thin book of SOAR: Building strengths- based strategy. Bend, OR: Think Book Publishing.
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Dr. Jennifer Hitchcock is a member of the U.S. Army’s Senior Execu- tive Service and is currently the Director of Systems Integration and Engineering at the U.S. Army’s Tank Automotive Research and Development Center (TARDEC). In this role she is responsible for leading the engineering and integration of advanced capabili- ties into US Army ground combat and tactical vehicles. As an orga- nizational leader, her research interests include organization development and organizational behavior, specifically focusing on organizational collective moti- vation. She can be reached at email@example.com.
Dr. Jacqueline Stavros is Professor at Lawrence Technological Uni- versity’s College of Management. She integrates strengths-based, whole system concepts such as Appreciative Inquiry (AI) and SOAR (www.soar‑strategy.com) into her research, teaching, training, and consulting. She has co-authored six books, 20 book chapters, and 30 articles. Her research interests are focused in positive theories and practices of the human side of organizations and change. She has presented her research and work in over 25 countries. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
35Organizational Collective Motivation: A New Framework for Motivating Employees in Organizations
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