1. Feedback is the results of behavior communicated to the trainee for his use and learning regarding his past performance. There are several types of feedback:
a. Positive Feedback – Feedback that states approval of past performance and usually results in an increase in the rate of the approved behavior.
b. Negative Feedback – Feedback that states disapproval of past performance and usually produces a decrease in the rate of the disapproved behavior.
c. Directive Feedback – Information about past performance that is presented to the performer and that is neither approving nor disapproving.
2. General Pointers on Performance Feedback:
a. Give it ASAP.
b. Don’t hedge your statement.
c. Timing is critical.
d. Do not give feedback when you are angry.
e. Active listening is important.
f. Be tactful but be specific.
g. The more frequent the feedback, the more impact it has on behavior.
h. Be consistent.
3. Ten Basic Rules on How to Give Feedback:
a. Perceptions, reactions, and opinions should be presented as such and not as facts.
b. Feedback should refer to relevant performance, behavior, or outcomes and not the individual as a person.
c. Feedback should be in terms of specific observable behavior, not global or general assertions.
d. When feedback has to be evaluative, rather than descriptive, it should be in terms of established criteria, probable outcomes, or possible improvement, as opposed to making judgments, such as “good” or “bad”.
e. Feedback in an area of performance should include a discussion of what is viewed as “high” and “low” points of that performance and the specific behaviors that appear to be contributing to or limiting full effectiveness or accomplishment.
f. In discussing problem areas where there are technical or established procedures for achieving solutions, suggestions should be made regarding possible means of improving performance.
g. Feedback should avoid “loaded” terms that produce emotional reactions or raised defenses.
h. Feedback should be concerned with those areas over which the trainee can exercise some control and given in ways that indicate how feedback can be used for improvement or planning alternative actions.
i. When encountering raised defenses or emotional reactions, the FTO giving the feedback should deal with these rather than trying to convince, reason, or supply additional information.
j. Feedback should be given in a manner that communicates acceptance of the receiver as a worthwhile person and of that person’s right to be different.
END OF READING