Leader–Member Exchange And Followership

Leader–Member Exchange And Followership

Leader–Member

Exchange

And

Followership

PowerPoint Presentation prepared by Charlie Cook, The University of West Alabama

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Chapter 7

1. Describe the evolution of dyadic theory.

2. Define the two kinds of relationships that can occur

among leaders and followers under the vertical dyadic

linkage model.

3. Describe the main focus of team building from a leader–

follower perspective.

4. Describe the three factors whose combined effect

influences LMX relationships.

5. Discuss a strength and a limitation of LMX theory.

6. Explain how LMX relationships can lead to unintended

consequences.

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7. Describe the two behaviors used in the Kelley Model

and identify the resulting follower types.

8. Discuss the three determinants of follower influence.

9. List five things a leader should delegate.

10. Effective leader evaluation and feedback involves

before, during, and after steps in the process. Identify

some recommended activities during each step.

11. Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter.

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Evolution of the Dyadic Theory

• Dyadic

Refers to the individualized relationship between a

leader and each follower in a work unit

• Dyadic theory

 Is an approach to leadership that attempts to explain

why leaders vary their behavior with different

followers

• Dyadic theorists focus on the development and

effects of separate dyadic relationships between

leaders and followers

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The Dyadic Approach

• Concentrates on the heterogeneity of dyadic

relationships

• Argues that a single leader will form different

relationships with different followers

• Leaders provide support for self-worth

 A leader’s support for a follower’s actions and ideas

 A leader building follower’s confidence in his or her

ability, integrity, and motivation

 A leader paying attention to the follower’s feelings

and needs

7–5

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Dyadic Approach: Stages of Development

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Individualized leader–follower interactions

that create in-groups and out-groups

Focus is on the quality of each dyad and its

effects on organizational outcomes over time

Leaders can aspire to build positive relation-

ships with all followers, not just a few special

individuals

Creating dyadic relationships across

boundaries to include a larger network of

participants

Vertical Dyadic Linkage

(VDL) Theory

Leader–Member

Exchange (LMX)

Team

Building

Systems and

Networks

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7.1 Dyadic Approach: Stages of Development Exhibit

Vertical Dyadic Linkage (VDL) Theory

• Examines how leaders form one-on-one relationships

with followers, and how these often create in-groups and

out-groups within the leader’s work unit

• In-group

 Includes followers with strong social ties to their leader in a

supportive relationship characterized by high mutual trust,

respect, loyalty, and influence

• Out-group

 Influences followers with few or no social ties to their leader, in a

strictly task-centered relationship characterized by low exchange

and top-down influence

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Characteristics of In-Groups

• Participate in important decision making

• Are given added responsibility

• Have greater access to the leader

• Experience greater support and positive influence from

the leader

• Reciprocity

• High exchange

• Granted special favors from the leader

• Mutual reinforcement based on common needs and

interests

• More likely to share with own group members than with

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Characteristics of Out-Groups

• Are managed according to the employment

contract requirements

• Receive little inspiration, encouragement, or

recognition

• Do not experience positive relationships and

influence

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Discussion Question

• In your opinion, can a leader maintain a

personal friendship with some members of his or

her work group or team without creating the

perception of in-groups (those in his or her

social circle) and out-groups (those outside his

or her social circle)?

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Discussion Question

• What should a leader do to dispel any notion or

misperception that there are in-groups and out-

groups in his or her work unit?

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Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

• Is the quality of the exchange relationship

between an employee and his or her superior

• Face-to-face leader–member interaction is

critical in organizations

• Assumes leaders have limited amounts of

social, personal, and organizational resources,

and tend to distribute them among followers

selectively

• Leaders do not interact with all followers equally,

which ultimately results in the formation of LMXs

that vary in quality

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Team-Member Exchange (TMX) Theory

• Defined as a team member’s social exchanges

with peers in terms of the mutual exchange of

ideas, support, camaraderie, and feedback.

• Differentiated leadership

Creates in-groups and out-groups and also creates a

divergence in leader identification and member self-

efficacy and at worst lowers group collective efficacy.

 inevitably leads to questions of fairness in team

leadership as some members (more than likely those

in the out-group) may feel that they are not being

treated fairly.

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Team-Member Exchange Theory (cont’d)

• Differentiated leadership inevitably leads to

questions of fairness in team leadership as

some members (most likely in the out-group)

may feel that they are not being treated fairly.

• Procedural fairness is the perception among

team members that they are treated fairly

• Distributive fairness is the perception that they

have been rewarded fairly.

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Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

• Deals with how leaders’ differentiated leadership

influences member and group behaviors

 Leaders form both high-quality social exchanges and

low-quality economic exchanges with their followers.

 The quality of the LMX affects employees’ work

ethics, productivity, satisfaction, and perceptions

 Followers in high quality relationships reciprocate

their leader’s trust and liking through “citizenship

behaviors” and excellent performance

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Factors That Influence LMX Relationships

Follower

Behavior and

Attributes

Situational

Factors

Leader–Follower

Perceptions and

Self-Identities

LMX Relationship

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Factors That Influence LMX Relationships

Follower

Behavior and

Attributes

Situational

Factors

Leader–Follower

Perceptions and

Self-Identities

LMX

Relationship

High-Quality LMX Relationships versus Low-Quality LMX Relationships

• High-quality LMX relationship characteristics:

 Better social support

More resources

More guidance for career development

Greater follower input in decision making

Greater negotiating latitude

• Low-quality LMX relationship characteristics:

 Less support

More formal supervision

 Little or no involvement in decision making

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Factors that Determine LMX Quality

• Follower Attributes

 Proactive followers:

 Show initiative even in areas outside their immediate

responsibility

 Possess a strong sense of commitment to work unit goals

 Show a stronger sense of responsibility for unit success

 These follower attributes influence leaders to:

 Show support

 Delegate more

 Allow greater discretion

 Engage in open communication

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Factors that Determine LMX Quality (cont’d)

• Leader–Follower Perceptions

 The leader’s first impressions of the follower can

influence the leader’s behavior toward the follower

 A positive relationship is more likely when:

 The follower is perceived to be competent and dependable

 The leader and follower hold similar values and attitudes

 A favorable exchange relationship correlates with:

 Greater likelihood of support by the leader

 Fewer pressure tactics by the leader

 Greater involvement and mentoring by the leader

 More honest input from the leader

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Factors that Determine LMX Quality (cont’d)

• Follower Perceptions of the Leader

 Leaders perceived to be competent, experienced, fair,

and honest are more likely to be supported.

• Self-Identity (Self Concept)

 Individual self-identity is self-centered and unique.

 Can create problems for followers and leaders in forming

LMX relationships

Relational self-identity is dyad-centered, forming

relationships with others

Collective self-identity is defined in terms of the

broader group

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Situational Factors that Determine LMX Quality

Width of leader’s

span of control

Stage of the

relationship in the

life cycle model

Managerial

resource strength

of the leader

Quality of work

group’s climate

Strength of

individual’s social

identity with group

The Life Cycle Model for Developing Positive LMX Relations

• Initial Stage

 The leader and follower conduct themselves as

strangers in an economic-based exchange

• Middle Stage

 The leader and follower become acquainted and

refine the roles they will play together.

• Mature Stage

 Leader and follower engage a social-based

exchange of sharing and mutual commitment to

the work group or team.

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Developing High-Quality LMX Relationships

• Proactive Follower Behaviors

 Impression management

 Is a follower’s effort to project a favorable image in order to

gain an immediate benefit or improve a long-term relationship

with the leader

 Ingratiation

 Is the effort to appear supportive, appreciative, and respectful

 Self-promotion

 Is the effort to appear competent and dependable

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Discussion Question

• What do you say to those who argue that tactics

used by followers to get noticed by their leader

(such as impressions management, ingratiation,

and self-promotion) are shameful and self-

serving and should be avoided?

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The Benefits of High-Quality LMX Relationships (cont’d)

• The quality of LMX is central in influencing

followers’:

 Affective, cognitive, and behavioral experiences

Roles

 Fate in their organizations

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The Benefits of High-Quality LMX Relationships

• The basis for establishing a deeper exchange

relationship with in-group members is the leader’s

control over outcomes that are desirable to the followers,

which include:

 Helping with a follower’s career

 Giving special favors

 Allowing participation in decision making

 Delegating greater responsibility and authority

 Sharing more information

 Assigning interesting and desirable tasks

 Giving tangible rewards

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The Benefits of High-Quality LMX Relationships (cont’d)

• In return for these benefits, in-group members are

expected to:

 Be loyal to the leader

 Be more committed to task objectives

 Work harder

 Share some of the leader’s administrative duties

• To the leader this also represents social capital that

gives him or her power and influence over followers

• Unless this cycle of behavior is interrupted, the

relationship is likely to develop to a point where there is

a high degree of mutual dependence, support, and

loyalty

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The Benefits of High-Quality LMX Relationships (cont’d)

• The special relationship with in-group followers creates

certain obligations and constraints for the leader

• To maintain the relationship, the leader must:

 Pay attention to in-group members

 Remain responsive to their needs and feelings

 Rely more on time-consuming influence methods such as

persuasion and consultation

 Not resort to coercion or heavy-handed use of authority

• The followers are therefore said to have developed

social capital

 The set of resources that inheres in the structure of relations

between members of the group, which helps them get ahead

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Strengths of LMX Theory

• LMX focuses on the relationship between the leader

and each follower.

• LMX emphasizes the importance of leaders forming

positive relationships with followers and how this in turn

influences their behavior.

• Research has revealed that high-quality LMX and TMX

relationships do positively influence followers’

organizational commitment, organizational citizenship

behavior (OCB), job performance, and creativity.

• LMX emphasizes the importance of communication

between leaders and followers.

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Limitations of LMX Theory Application

• Measurement difficulty in focusing on the perspectives of

followers and not those of leaders

 LMX-7 scale

 Is the most commonly used instrument for defining and

measuring the quality of relationships

 Measures vertical dyad linkages and not social exchanges

• High quality LMXs can result in an inherent bias in favor

of in-group over out-group members in performance

evaluations, promotions, and career advancement

10 20 30 40 50 High-quality LMX relationship Low-quality LMX relationship

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Followership and Followers

• Followership

Refers to the behavior of followers that results from

the leader–follower mutual influencing relationship

• Follower

 Is a person who is being influenced by a leader

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Followership and Followers (cont’d)

• Effective leadership requires effective followers

• There are no leaders without followers

• The influencing process of leaders and followers

is a two-way street, with followers also

influencing leaders

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Followership Types

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High

Effective

follower

Conformist

follower

Level of

Involvement

Low

Alienated

follower

Passive

follower

Low Critical Thinking High

Pragmatic

follower

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7.2 Followership Types Exhibit

Followership Types (cont’d)

• Alienated followers

 Are low on involvement yet are high on critical

thinking

 Feel cheated or unappreciated

 Are capable but unwilling to participate in developing

solutions to problems

• Conformist followers

 Are the “yes” people of the organization

Carry out all orders without considering the

consequences

 Avoid conflict

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Followership Types (cont’d)

• Passive Followers

 Are neither high on critical thinking nor involvement

 Look to the leader or others to do all the thinking

Require constant supervision

Never go beyond the job description

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Followership Types (cont’d)

• Effective Followers

 Are high on critical thinking and involvement

 Are not risk-averse nor do they shy from conflict

Have the courage to initiate change

 Serve the best interest of the organization

 Tend to function very well in self-managed teams

Complement the leader’s efforts and can be relied

upon the relieve the leader of many tasks

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Followership Types (cont’d)

• Pragmatic followers

 Exhibit a little of all four styles—depending on which

style fits the prevailing situation

 Present an ambiguous image, with positive and

negative sides

 On the positive side, when an organization is going through

desperate times, the pragmatic follower knows how to “work

the system to get things done”

 On the negative side, this same behavior can be interpreted

as “playing political games,” or adjusting to maximize self-

interest

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Guidelines to Becoming an Effective Follower

• Offer support to leader

• Take initiative

• Play counseling and coaching roles to leader when

appropriate

• Raise issues and/or concerns when necessary

• Seek and encourage honest feedback from the leader

• Clarify your role and expectations

• Show appreciation

• Keep the leader informed

• Resist inappropriate influence of leader

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7.3 Guidelines to Becoming an Effective Follower Exhibit

1. Offer support to leader.

2. Take initiative.

3. Play counseling and coaching roles to leader when appropriate.

4. Raise issues and/or concerns when necessary.

5. Seek and encourage honest feedback from the leader.

6. Clarify your role and expectations.

7. Show appreciation.

8. Keep the leader informed.

9. Resist inappropriate influence of leader.

Factors that Determine Follower Influence

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Power

Position

Education and

Experience

Locus of

Control

Follower Influence

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7.4 Factors That Determine Follower Influence Exhibit

Follower Relative Power Position

• Leaders must realize that they are no longer the

sole possessors of power and influence in their

work units.

• Some followers may have personal, referent,

expert, information, and connection-based

sources of power that can be used to boost

upward influence

• As more and more employees come to rely on a

particular follower for information, expertise, or

simply because of his or her personality, the

follower’s relative power position increases.

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Follower Locus of Control

• Followers with an internal locus of control prefer a work

environment that facilitates:

 Communication with leaders

 Participation in decision making

 Opportunities to be creative

• Followers with an internal locus of control prefer a

participative style of leadership

• Followers with an internal locus of control are more likely

to be more influential with other followers than those with

an external locus of control

• Followers with an external locus of control prefer a

directive style of leadership

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Follower Education and Experience

• Followers with less education and experience

need more guidance, coaching, and feedback

• To improve their performance, inexperienced

employees often seek the assistance of

experienced employees

• Today’s workers are far more educated, mobile,

diverse, and younger than the workforce of 20

years ago

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Follower Education and Experience (cont’d)

• The need for continuing education and training

on the job is increasing

• Leaders have to shift away from the top-down

directive style of leading where tasks are highly

structured and power tends to be centralized

• They need to move toward a more

decentralized, participative style of managing

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Dual Role of Being a Leader and a Follower

• Good leadership is found in highly effective

followers

• A person can be a leader and also a follower

• The roles can change back and forth throughout

the course of a work day

• Self-managed teams require members to

alternate between playing leadership and

followership roles

• To execute both roles effectively is a challenge,

given the high potential for role conflicts and

ambiguities

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Delegation

• Delegation

 Is the process of assigning the responsibility and

authority for accomplishing objectives

Refers to giving employees new tasks

 depends for its success on a manager’s ability to

know what to delegate and what not to delegate

• Factors that the leader should consider when

delegating:

 Task

 Time required

 Follower characteristics

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Benefits of Delegation

• Gives managers more time to perform high-priority tasks

• Gets tasks accomplished and increases productivity

• Enables leaders to mobilize resources and secure better

results than they could have got alone

• Trains employees and improves their self-esteem

• Eases the stress and burden on managers

• Enriches followers’ jobs

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Obstacles to Delegation

• Managers fail to delegate and want to do it all

themselves because of:

Habit—they have always done it themselves or

believe that they can do it more efficiently

 Fear—that employees will fail to accomplish the task

or that employees will show them up

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Signs of Delegating Too Little

• Taking work home

• Performing employee tasks

• Being behind in work

• A continual feeling of pressure

• Stress

• Rushing to meet deadlines

• Requiring that employees seek approval before

acting

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Delegation Decisions

• Successful delegation is based on:

 Selecting what task(s) to delegate

 Selecting who to delegate the task(s) to

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What to Delegate

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Routine

paperwork

Solving

employee

problems

Routine

tasks

Tasks with

developmental

potential

Technical

matters

What Not to Delegate

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 7–56

Confidential

activities

Personnel

matters

Crises

Activities

delegated to

you personally

Step 1

Explain need for delegating and

reasons for selecting the employee.

Step 2

Set objectives that define responsibility,

level of authority, and deadline.

Step 3

Develop a plan.

Step 4

Establish control checkpoints and

hold employees accountable.

The Delegation Model

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

7.1 Steps in the Delegation Process Model

Guidelines for Effective Leader Feedback

• Pre-feedback—Leader should:

Remind self to stay calm and professional

Gather accurate facts on follower performance

Remind self to avoid rush to judgment

• During feedback session—Leader should:

 Be specific in stating performance deficiency

 Explain negative impact of ineffective behavior

Help follower identify reasons for poor performance

 Ask follower to suggest remedies

 Arrive at mutual agreement on specific action steps

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 7–59

Guidelines for Effective Leader Feedback (cont’d)

• Post-feedback session—Leader should:

 Follow up to ensure implementation of action steps

 Show desire to be of help to follower

 Build follower’s self-confidence

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 7–60

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

7.5 Guidelines for Effective Leader Evaluation and Feedback Exhibit

Pre-Evaluation and Feedback—Leader should:

• Remind self to stay calm and professional

• Gather accurate facts on follower performance

• Remind self to avoid rush to judgment

During Evaluation and Feedback Session—Leader should:

• Be specific in stating performance deficiency

• Explain negative impact of ineffective behavior

• Help follower identify reasons for poor performance

• Ask follower to suggest remedies

• Arrive at mutual agreement on specific action steps

Post-Evaluation and Feedback Session—Leader should:

• Follow up to ensure implementation of action steps

• Show desire to be of help to follower

• Build follower’s self-confidence

Key Terms

• alienated follower

• conformist follower

• delegation

• delegation model

• dyad

• dyadic theory

• effective follower

• follower

• followership

• impressions

management

• ingratiation

• in-group

• leader–member exchange (LMX)

• locus of control

• organizational citizenship

behavior

• out-group

• passive follower

• pragmatic follower

• self-efficacy

• self-promotion

• social capital

• team-member exchange (TMX)

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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.


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