Team Leadership and Self-Managed

Team Leadership and Self-Managed

PowerPoint Presentation prepared by Charlie Cook, The University of West Alabama

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Chapter 8

1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of working in

teams.

2. Briefly describe the ten characteristics of effective teams.

3. What role can a team leader play in creating an effective

team?

4. Describe how organizational climate can influence team

creativity.

5. Outline the three parts of conducting effective meetings.

6. Explain the differences between conventional and self-

managed teams.

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7. Describe the benefits of using self-managed teams in

organizations

8. Describe the top management’s role in improving the

success rate of self-managed teams.

9. Describe the challenges of implementing effective self-

managed teams.

10. Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter.

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The Use of Teams in Organizations

• Is a way of life in postmodern organizations

• Offers the best opportunity for better

organizational performance in the form of

increased productivity and profits

• Leads to cooperation and synergy

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Use of Teams in Organizations (cont’d)

• Teams have led to performance improvements

such as:

 Improved quality

 Improved efficiency

 Improved employee satisfaction

 Improved customer satisfaction

• However, teams has resulted in negative

outcomes such as:

 Increased costs

 Stress

 Lower group cohesion

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Critical Questions To Ask Before Embracing the Team Concept

• Will the use of teams diffuse important organizational

capabilities?

• How much infrastructure realignment will be required?

• Will leaders embrace the team concept and change their

styles to suit?

• Can teams carry out tasks previously performed by

individuals or functional units?

• How difficult it will be to develop team problem-solving

capabilities?

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Groups Versus Teams: What Is the Difference?

• Group

 A group is a collection of individuals who interact

primarily to share information and to make decisions

that enable each member to perform within his or her

area of responsibility.

• Team

 A unit of interdependent individuals with

complementary skills who are committed to a

common purpose and set of performance goals and

to common expectations, for which they hold

themselves accountable

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• GROUPS

 Focus on individual

performance and goals

 Rely on individual abilities

 Work more independently

with greater motivation to

achieve personal goals

 Have a very hierarchical

leadership style

 Characterized by individual

self-interest

• TEAMS

 Have a sense of shared mission

 Have collective responsibility

 Focus on sharing information,

insights, and perspectives

 Support individuals in doing their

jobs better

 Reinforce each other’s individual

performance standards

 Use a participative/ empowerment-

oriented leadership style

 Have performance measures that

create direct accountability

 Strive for equality among members

Groups and Teams: How Do They Differ?

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• ADVANTAGES

 Synergy

 Avoidance of major errors

 Faster, better decisions

 Continuous improvement

 Innovation

 Self-motivation

 Empowerment

 Greater job satisfaction

 Needs fulfillment

• DISADVANTAGES

 Pressure to conform to

group standards of

performance and conduct

 Resistance to the team

effort from impinging on

autonomy

 Social loafing

 Groupthink

 Intergroup conflicts

 High levels of pressure and

stress

Advantages and Disadvantages of Teamwork

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Social Loafing

• Is the conscious or unconscious tendency by

some team members to shirk responsibilities by

withholding effort toward group goals when they

are not individually accountable for their work

• Is likely when individual effort is not recognized

and assessed

• Individual-level performance appraisal helps

reduce social loafing, but risks jeopardizing team

interaction and synergy

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Groupthink

• Occurs when members of a cohesive group tend

to agree on a decision not on the basis of its

merit but because they are less willing to risk

rejection for questioning a majority viewpoint or

presenting a dissenting opinion

Unanimity is more important than objectivity

Dissenting views are suppressed in favor of

consensus

Can be remedied by training team members to

become effective participants in the decision-making

process

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Discussion Questions

• Teams are often credited with making better

decisions than individuals, yet they are also

criticized for groupthink.

What strategies are there for creating effective teams

that are unlikely to become victims of the groupthink

phenomenon?

What are the key indicators of a dysfunctional team?

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Components of Team Effectiveness

• Task Performance

 Is the degree to which the team’s output meets the

needs and expectations of those who use it

• Group Process

 Is the degree to which members interact or relate that

allow the team to work increasingly well together over

time

• Individual Satisfaction

 Is the degree to which the group experience, on

balance, is more satisfying than frustrating to team

members

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Characteristics of Effective Teams

• A highly publicized team charter and team norms

• Widely shared goals and objectives

• Strong team cohesion and high task inter-dependence

• A diversified team mix

• Clearly define roles and responsibilities

• Positive interpersonal relationships

• Clearly stated standard operating procedures

• Trust and conflict management abilities

• Effective interpersonal communication skills

• Strong top management support

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8.1 Ten Characteristics of Effective Teams Exhibit

1. A highly publicized team charter and team norms

2. Widely shared goals and objectives

3. Strong team cohesion and high task inter-dependence

4. A diversified team mix

5. Clearly define roles and responsibilities

6. Positive interpersonal relationships

7. Clearly stated standard operating procedures

8. Trust and conflict management abilities

9. Effective interpersonal communication skills

10. Strong top management support

Highly Publicized Team Charter and Team Norms

• Team Norms

 Are acceptable standards of behavior shared by team

members

 Influence how members perceive and interact with

one another, approach decisions, and solve problems

 Are developed and become accepted in the early

stages of team formation

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Widely Shared Goals and Objectives

• The most effective teams are committed to team

goals as well as individual goals

• When team members all share the same goals

and objectives and each member clearly

understands his or her role in helping to achieve

the goals, performance is enhanced.

• Effective teams strive for consensus,

consistency, and agreement on team goals and

objectives

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Strong Team Cohesion and High Task Interdependence

• Team Cohesion

 Is the extent to which team members band together and remain

committed to achieving team goals

• Characteristics of Highly Cohesive Teams

 High group potency in their collective belief of the effectiveness

of their group

 Strong self-efficacy beliefs held by individuals or the group about

how well and impending situation can be handled

• Interdependence

 Is the degree to which team members depend on each other for

information, resources, and other inputs to complete their or the

team’s tasks

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Strong Team Cohesion and High Task Interdependence (cont’d)

• Team cohesion increases when:

Members agree on common purpose and direction

 External parties give high praise and recognition for

the team’s success

 The organization motivates teams to compete with

each other for rewards

Members find common ground and have similar

attitudes and values

Members enjoy being on the team

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A Diversified Team Mix

• Focuses on the diversity in knowledge,

background, and experiences of team members

 Teams need the right mix of complementary skills,

knowledge, and ability

 Teams with experience in working together

demonstrate greater task proficiency and teamwork

effectiveness

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A Diversified Team Mix (cont’d)

• Team diversity reduces the likelihood of

groupthink

• Teams that do not manage diversity well may

suffer negative consequences

• Good working relationships require good social

skills for team members

• Size also impacts team effectiveness

 Small teams of under 12 members are generally more

effective

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Clearly Defined Roles and Responsibilities

• There is a greater chance of realizing team goals and

objectives when team members clearly understand their

roles and responsibilities

• Each team member should know what his or her job is,

how it contributes to meeting team goals and objectives,

and how performance is measured.

• Having clearly defined roles and responsibilities makes it

more likely team members will accept personal

responsibility and not assign blame when things go

wrong.

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Positive Interpersonal Relationships

• Positive interpersonal relationships reflect the

mutual respect and trust, support, inclusion,

collaboration, and open and honest

communication between team members.

Members of an effective team can show support for

each other by being attentive to each others’ needs,

and by spending the appropriate amount of time

together to ensure success

• Positive interpersonal relationships give

members a sense of belonging in the team.

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Clearly Stated Standard Operating Procedures

• Team effectiveness depends the operating rules

and procedures that govern how the team

carries out its work together.

Rules and operating procedures need to be set for

communicating, meetings, performance evaluation,

decision making and problem solving, completing

tasks, and managing conflict.

 Setting and abiding by the team’s rules and operating

procedures will assure consistency in behavior

among team members and reduce the chance of

mistakes or conflict that can jeopardize team success.

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Trust and Conflict Management Abilities

• The intrateam between team members and the

team leader influences interpersonal relations

and ultimately, team performance

• Disagreements can have both positive and

negative consequences on team effectiveness.

• Effective teams are proactive both in anticipating

the need for conflict resolution and in developing

conflict resolution strategies that apply to all

team members

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Strong Top Management Support

• Effective teams have strong support from top

management

• Assessing team effectiveness as part of overall

organizational performance is an important role

of top management

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Team Leadership

• Effective Team Leaders:

Must recognize that not everyone knows how to be a

team player

Must display self-sacrificing behavior and self-

confidence

 Employ multiple influencing tactics to control and

direct team member action toward the achievement of

organizational goals

 Encourage norms that positively affect the team’s

goals and alter those that are negative

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Team Leadership (cont’d)

• Effective team leaders: (cont’d)

Observe with a keen eye what’s going on in the team

Make contributions when necessary

 Encourage a climate of dialogue

 Turn obstacles into opportunities

 See themselves and others as part of the team’s pool

of knowledge, skills, and ideas

 Are adaptive, knowing when to play different roles

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8.2 The Team Leader’s Role in Creating Effective Teams Exhibit

• Emphasize group recognition and rewards.

• Identify and build on the team’s strengths.

• Develop trust and a norm of teamwork.

• Develop the team’s capabilities to anticipate and deal with

change effectively.

• Empower teams to accomplish their work with minimal

interference.

• Inspire and motivate teams toward higher levels of performance.

• Recognize individual and team needs and attend to them in a

timely fashion.

• Encourage and support team decisions.

• Provide teams with challenging and motivating work.

Team Creativity

• Is the creation of a valuable, useful, and novel

product, service, idea, procedure, or process

carried out via discovery rather than a

predetermined step-by-step procedure, by

individuals working together in a complex social

system

• Organizations that will survive and thrive are

those that make the best use of the creativity of

their workforce

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Organizational Practices that Foster Team Creativity

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Appropriate

recognition

and rewards

Adequate

and quality

resources

A supportive

climate and

culture

Flexibility and

minimum

structure

Fostering team

creativity by providing

Team Leader Practices that Foster Team Creativity

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Giving team

members

greater

autonomy

Matching

people with

the right

assignments

Providing

adequate time,

money, and

other resources

Protecting

against

“creativity

blockers”

Team leader

practices that foster

team creativity

Types of Teams

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Virtual Team

Self-Managed Team

Functional Team

Cross-Functional Team

Types of

Teams

Functional Team

• Is a group of employees belonging to the same

functional department, such as marketing, R&D,

production, human resources, or information

systems who have a common objective

• The structure is generally more hierarchical with

the functional leader making all the decisions

and expecting his or her followers to implement

them

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Functional Team (cont’d)

• Team members tend to focus on their local area

of specialization ignoring the overall

organizational mission

• There is no one best leadership style to use

• The use of functional structure has been in

decline

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Cross-Functional Team

• Is made up of members of different functional

departments of an organization who are brought

together to perform unique tasks to create new

and nonroutine products or services

• Some members may be from outside the

organization

• Interaction, cooperation, coordination,

information sharing, and cross-fertilization of

ideas among people from different functional

areas produces better quality products/services

with shorter development cycles

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Cross-Functional Team (cont’d)

• Benefits of Cross-functional Teams:

 A rich and diverse base of knowledge and creative

potential that exceeds that of a functional team

 Improved coordination

 Avoidance of problems

Multiple sources of information and perspectives

Contacts outside of one’s functional specialty

 Speed to market

 Learning of new skills that members carry back to

their functional unit

 Synergy

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8.3 Guidelines for Effective Cross-Functional Teams Exhibit

1. Develop consensus around a common mission

and goals that focus on organizational outcomes.

2. Implement team-based performance measures,

feedback, and reward systems.

3. Ensure effective leadership and top management

support.

4. Promote the use of team building, skill

development, and team training as common

practices.

5. Assemble the right skills.

6. Organize at the right size.

Virtual Team

• Virtual Team

 Is one whose members are geographically

distributed, requiring them to work together through

electronic means with minimal face-to-face interaction

Can have significant collaboration, communication,

and leadership challenges to team interaction,

information sharing, and knowledge integration

• Effects of New Communication Technologies

 Provide the means for teamwork that is dispersed in

many different locations

 Allow for more asynchronous teamwork as virtual

cross-functional teams grow in global operations

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Self-Managed Team (SMT)

• Self-Managed Teams (SMTs)

 Are relatively autonomous and are usually cross-

functional in membership makeup

 Share or rotate leadership responsibilities

Hold themselves mutually responsible for a set of

performance goals assigned by higher management

Have wide latitude in decision making in managing

themselves, planning and scheduling work, and

taking action on problems

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Leader-Centered Decision-Making Model

• The leader exercises his or her power to initiate,

direct, drive, instruct, and control team members

 To be successful, the leader should:

 Focus on task

 Ignore personal feelings and relationships

 Seek opinions

 Get agreement

 Make final decisions

 Stay in control

 Stop disruptions

 Discourage members from expressing their feelings

 Keep it rational

 Guard against threats to leader authority

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Team-Centered Decision-Making Model (cont’d)

• Advantages

Can improve decision quality

 Shifts much of the decision making away from the

leader

 Allows the leader to think more strategically

 Allows responsibility to be diffused among several

people

Results in higher commitment by team members to

implement decisions as compared to decisions made

alone by a leader

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Team-Centered Decision- Making Model (cont’d)

• Disadvantages

Can take longer than decisions made alone by a

manager

Can be self-serving and contrary to the best interests

of the organization, if team members have objectives

and/or priorities different from those of the leader

Can end up being a poor compromise rather than an

optimal solution

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Normative Leadership Model

• Originally discussed in Chapter 5

• The normative model applies to group decision

making, because the model is used to determine

the level of participation to use in a given

situation

• The decision styles are:

Decide

Consult individually

Consult group

 Facilitate

Delegate

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Team-Centered Decision-Making Model

• Empowers team members to make decisions

and follow through

• To be successful, the team leader should:

 Listen attentively and watch for nonverbal cues

 Be aware of members’ feelings, needs, interactions, conflicts

 Serve as a consultant, advisor, teacher, and facilitator

Model appropriate leadership behaviors

 Establish a climate of approval for expression

Relinquish control to the team

 Allow the team to make final decisions

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Leadership Skills for Effective Team Meetings

• Planning for Meetings

Define objectives for meeting

 Select participants and making assignments

 Set the agenda

Determine time and place for the meeting

 Assume leadership

• Conducting Meetings

 Identify objectives

Cover agenda items

 Summarize and review assignments

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8.4 Meeting Plans Exhibit

Leadership Skills for Effective Team Meetings (cont’d)

• Handling Problem Members\Attendees:

 Silent

 Talkers

Wanderers

 Bored

 Arguers

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The Nature of Self-Managed Teams

• To understand the nature of SMTs, two key

questions need to be posed and addressed:

What makes them different from conventional teams?

How widespread is their use in organizations?

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How Are SMTs Different from Conventional Teams?

Characteristics

Self-Managed

Teams

Conventional

Teams

Leadership Within the team Outside the team

Team member role Interchangeable Fixed

Accountability Team Individual

Work effort Cohesive Divided

Task design Flexible Fixed

Skills Multi-skilled Specialized

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8.5 Differences between Conventional and Self-Managed Teams Exhibit

Characteristics of SMT Members

• A strong belief in personal accountability

• An internal locus of control coupled with

emotional stability

• Openness to new ideas/viewpoints

• Effective communication

• Good problem-solving skills

• Ability to engender trust

• Good conflict-resolution skills

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The Benefits of Self-Managed Teams

• Greater improvements in quality, speed, process, and

innovation

• A sense of belonging and ownership in one’s work

• Greater employee motivation

• Accelerated new product development

• Greater employee participation

• Reduced operational costs because of reductions in

managerial ranks and greater efficiencies

• Greater employee job satisfaction, commitment, and

productivity, and lower turnover and absenteeism rates

8–53 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

8–54 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

8.6 Benefits of Self-Managed Teams Exhibit

• Greater improvements in quality, speed, process, and

innovation.

• A sense of belonging and ownership in one’s work.

• Greater employee motivation.

• Accelerated new product development.

• Greater employee participation.

• Reduced operational costs because of reductions in

managerial ranks and greater efficiencies.

• Greater employee job satisfaction, commitment, and

productivity, and lower turnover and absenteeism rates.

Improving the Success Rate of Self-Managed Teams

• Ensure that the whole organization has changed its

culture, structure, and climate to support SMTs

• Have a champion

 Advocate for the self-managed team concept

 Support and defend the SMT from opponents threatened by the

new concept.

 Help the team obtain necessary resources, gain political support

from top management and other stakeholders

 Have a well-thought-out vision of the way in which SMTs will fit

into the organization

• Allow time for team members to bond with one another

and form team skills

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 8–55

Improving the Success Rate of Self-Managed Teams (cont’d)

• Provide training so that team member skills and experiences match

the task requirements

• Provide objective goals, incentives, and appropriate infrastructure

• Ensure that the organization has the time, money, and human

resources to commit to this kind of change

• Create a sense of empowerment so SMTs take ownership of what

they dog and how they do it

• Pay close attention to team design decisions

• Develop team-based measurements and corresponding feedback

methods that address team performance

• Recruit and train managers to act as facilitators or coaches

• Avoid overreacting at the first sign of crisis

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 8–56

The Changing Role of Leadership in Self-Managed Teams

• The concept of a self-managed team

Does not mean “without management” in that the self-

managed team still receives direction and instructions

from higher authority

 Implies self-responsibility and self-accountability

Requires avoiding sending conflicting signals to

managers as to how they should go about functioning

as external leaders for self-managed teams

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 8–57

The Changing Role of Leadership in Self-Managed Teams (cont’d)

• Distributed Leadership

Multiple leaders take complementary leadership roles

in rotation within the same SMT, according to their

area of expertise or interest

• Self-managed Team Facilitator

 Is the external leader of a SMT who creates optimal

working conditions for team members to take on

responsibilities, work productively, and solve complex

problems on their own.

Must be good at coaching, influencing, and

empowering the team.

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 8–58

SMT Facilitator: Team-Building Activities

• Opening forums to resolve interpersonal conflicts

• Creating opportunities for social interaction

• Increasing mutual acceptance and respect among

diverse team members

• Maintaining an open communication policy

• Highlighting mutual interest, not differences, of team

members

• Increasing team identification through the use of

ceremonies, rituals, and symbols

• Using team-oriented incentives to foster teamwork

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 8–59

8–60 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.

8.7 SMT Facilitator Team-Building Activities Exhibit

• Opening forums for resolving interpersonal conflicts.

• Creating opportunities for social interaction.

• Increasing mutual acceptance and respect among diverse

team members.

• Maintaining an open communication policy.

• Highlighting mutual interest, not differences, of team

members.

• Increasing team identification through the use of ceremonies,

rituals, and symbols.

• Using team-oriented incentives to foster teamwork.

The Challenges of Implementing Self-Managed Teams

• Many drawbacks associated with SMTs stem

from the difficulties of transitioning from a

traditional command-and-control work

environment to self-managed teams

Managers may resist or undermine the transition of

power

 Team members may experience anxiety about

learning new behaviors

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 8–61

The Challenges of Implementing Self-Managed Teams (cont’d)

• Some disadvantages of working in teams such

as social loafing and groupthink are also likely to

occur in self-managed teams

• Deciding to use self-managed teams

 Is not a guarantee of success

Requires a great deal of commitment, effort, and

support from all members of the organization

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 8–62

Key Terms

• cross-functional team

• distributed leadership

• functional team

• group

• groupthink

• self-managed team champion

• self-managed team facilitator

• self-managed teams (SMTs)

• social loafing

• team

• team cohesion

• team creativity

• team effectiveness

• team learning

• team norms

• teamwork

• virtual team

8–63 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as

permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.


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