Staffing Activities: Selection

Staffing Activities: Selection

Part 4
Staffing Activities: Selection

Chapter 8:

External Selection I

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

Staffing Policies and Programs

Staffing System and Retention Management

Support Activities

Legal compliance

Planning

Job analysis

Core Staffing Activities

Recruitment: External, internal

Selection:
Measurement, external, internal

Employment:
Decision making, final match

Staffing Organizations Model

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Chapter Outline

  • Preliminary Issues
  • Logic of Prediction
  • Nature of Predictors
  • Development of the Selection Plan
  • Selection Sequence
  • Initial Assessment Methods
  • Resumes and Cover Letters
  • Application Blanks
  • Biographical Information
  • Initial Assessment Methods
  • References and Background Checks
  • Initial Interview
  • Choice of Methods
  • Legal Issues
  • Disclaimers
  • Reference Checks
  • Background Checks
  • Preemployment Inquiries
  • Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications

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Learning Objectives for This Chapter

  • Understand how the logic of prediction guides the selection process
  • Review the nature of predictors—how selection measures differ
  • Understand the process involved in developing a selection plan, and the selection sequence
  • Learn about initial assessment methods and understand how these methods are optimally used in organizations
  • Evaluate the relative effectiveness of initial assessment methods to determine which work best, and why
  • Review the legal issues involved in the use of initial assessment methods, and understand how legal problems can be avoided

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Discussion Questions for This Chapter

  • A selection plan describes which predictor(s) will be used to assess the KSAOs required to perform the job. What are the three steps to follow in establishing a selection plan?
  • In what ways are the following three initial assessment methods similar and in what ways are they different: application blanks, biographical information, and reference and background checks?
  • Describe the criteria by which initial assessment methods are evaluated. Are some of these criteria more important than others?
  • Some methods of initial assessment appear to be more useful than others. If you were starting your own business, which initial assessment methods would you use and why?
  • How can organizations avoid legal difficulties in the use of preemployment inquiries in initial selection decisions?

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Logic of Prediction: Past Performance Predicts Future Performance

  • Not specific enough to make selection decisions
  • Job titles
  • Number of years of experience
  • What counts is the specific types of experiences required and the level of success at each

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Nature of Predictors

  • Content
  • Sign: A predisposition thought to relate to performance (e.g., personality)
  • Sample: Observing behavior thought to relate to performance
  • Criterion: Actual measure of prior performance
  • Form
  • Speed vs. power: How many versus what level
  • Paper / pencil vs. performance: Test in writing or in behavior
  • Objective vs. essay: Much like multiple-choice vs. essay course exam questions
  • Oral vs. written vs. computer: How data are obtained

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Development of the Selection Plan:
Steps Involved

Develop list of KSAOs required for job

  • KSAOs are provided by job requirements matrix

For each KSAO, decide if it needs to be assessed in the selection process

Determine method(s) of assessment to be used for each KSAO

Ex. 8.3 Assessment Methods by Applicant Flow Stage

Initial assessment methods

Minimize the costs associated with substantive assessment methods by reducing the number of people assessed

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Discussion questions

  • A selection plan describes which predictor(s) will be used to assess the KSAOs required to perform the job. What are the three steps to follow in establishing a selection plan?

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Resumes and Cover Letters

  • Information provided is controlled by applicant
  • Information needs to be verified by other predictors to ensure accuracy and completeness
  • Major issues
  • Large number received by organizations
  • Falsification and misrepresentation of information
  • Lack of research exists related to
  • Validity or reliability
  • Costs
  • Adverse impact

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Overview of Application Blanks

  • Areas covered
  • Educational experience
  • Training
  • Job experience
  • Key advantage — Organization dictates information provided
  • Major issue — Information requested should
  • Be critical to job success and
  • Reflect KSAOs relevant to job
  • Sample application blank – Exh. 8.4

Sample Application for Employment

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Application Blanks

  • Areas of special interest
  • Educational requirements
  • Level of education
  • GPA
  • Quality of school
  • Major field of study
  • Extracurricular activities
  • Training and experience requirements
  • Licensing, certification, and job knowledge
  • Weighted application blanks are better
  • Unweighted correlation with performance from.10 to .20
  • Weighted correlations are substantially higher

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Biographical Information / Biodata

  • Personal history information of applicant’s background and interests
  • “Best predictor of future behavior is past behavior”
  • Past behaviors may reflect ability or motivation
  • Measures
  • Exh. 8.5: Examples of Biodata Items
  • Biodata compared with background checks
  • Background check
  • examines an applicant’s background
  • conducted through records checks and conversations with references
  • Biodata
  • used to predict future performance
  • information is collected by survey

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Exhibit 8.5 Examples of Biodata Items

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Evaluation: Biographical
Information / Biodata

  • Test-retest reliability can be high: .60 to .90
  • Predictive validity moderate: r = .32 to .37
  • Issues
  • Generalizability beyond first group?
  • Although predictive validity exists, it is not clear
    what these inventories assess
  • Falsification can be a big problem

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Reference Reports:
Letters of Recommendation

  • Problems
  • Inability to discern more-qualified from
    less-qualified applicants
  • Lack of standardization
  • Suggestions to improve credibility
  • Use a structured form
  • Use a standardized scoring key

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Reference Reports: Reference Checks

  • Approach involves verifying applicant’s background via contact with
  • Prior immediate supervisor(s) or
  • HR department of current of previous companies
  • Roughly 8 of 10 companies conduct reference checks
  • Problems
  • Same as problems with letters of recommendation
  • Reluctance of companies to provide requested information due to legal concerns
  • Exh. 8.7: Sample Reference Check

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Reference Reports: Background Testing

  • Method involves assessing reliability of applicants’ behavior, integrity, and personal adjustment
  • Type of information requested
  • Criminal history
  • Credit information
  • Educational history
  • Employment verification
  • Driver license histories
  • Workers’ compensation claims
  • Key issues
  • Limited validity evidence
  • Legal constraints on pre-employment inquiries

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Evaluation of Reference Reports

  • Predictive validity limited: r = .16 to .26
  • Validity depends on source providing information
  • HR department, coworker, or relative
  • Supervisors
  • What sources do you think work best?
  • Cost vs. benefit of approach must be considered

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Initial Interview

  • Characteristics
  • Begins process of necessary differentiation
  • Purpose — Screen out most obvious cases of person / job mismatches
  • Limitation — Most expensive method
    of initial assessment
  • Video and computer interviews
  • Offers cost savings

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Evaluation of Initial Interview

  • Minimal evidence exists regarding usefulness
  • Guidelines to enhance usefulness
  • Ask questions assessing most basic KSAOs
  • Stick to basic, fundamental questions suitable for making rough cuts rather than subjective questions
  • Keep interviews brief
  • Ask same questions of all applicants

Choice of Initial Assessment Methods

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Discussion questions

  • In what ways are the following three initial assessment methods similar and in what ways are they different: application blanks, biographical information, and reference and background checks?
  • Describe the criteria by which initial assessment methods are evaluated. Are some of these criteria more important than others?
  • Some methods of initial assessment appear to be more useful than others. If you were starting your own business, which initial assessment methods would you use and why?

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Legal Issues

  • Disclaimers – Organization clearly identifies
    rights it wants to maintain
  • Employment-at-will
  • Verification consent
  • False statement warning
  • Reference checks
  • Preemployment inquiries
  • Federal laws and regulations
  • EEOC Guide to Preemployment Inquiries
  • ADA regulations
  • State laws and regulations

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Legal Issues

  • Bona fide occupational qualifications – BFOQs
  • Discrimination based on sex, religion, or national origin, but not race or color, is permitted if it can be shown to be a BFOQ “reasonably necessary to the normal operation” of the business
  • Employer justifications
  • Inability to perform
  • Same-sex personal contact
  • Customer preference
  • Pregnancy or fertility

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Discussion questions

  • How can organizations avoid legal difficulties in the use of preemployment inquiries in initial selection decisions?

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Ethical Issues

  • Issue 1
  • Is it wrong to “pad” one’s résumé with information that, while not an outright lie, is an enhancement? For example, would it be wrong to term one’s job “maintenance coordinator” when in fact one simply emptied garbage cans?
  • Issue 2
  • Do you think employer have a right to check into applicants’ backgrounds? Even if there is no suspicion of misbehavior? Even if the job poses no security or sensitive risks? Even if the background check includes driving offenses and credit histories?

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