ROLE OF CULTURE IN CREATING ORGANISATIONAL IDENTITY- A CASE STUDY ON CHEMICAL COMPANIES OF SAUDI ARABIA

ROLE OF CULTURE IN CREATING ORGANISATIONAL IDENTITY- A CASE STUDY ON CHEMICAL COMPANIES OF SAUDI ARABIA

STUDENT NAME: XXXXX

PROFESSOR NAME: XXX

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

1.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

1.2 Background of the topic …………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

1.3 Background of the companies …………………………………………………………………………………. 6

1.4 Problem Statement ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

1.5 Aim of the study……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

1.6 Objectives of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………… 8

1.7 Research questions ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8

1.8 Research Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8

1.9 Rationale of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

1.10 Purpose of the study …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

1.11 Structure of the dissertation ………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

1.12 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Chapter 2: Literature Review ……………………………………………………………………………………… 11

2.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

2.2 Conceptual framework …………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

2.3 Organizational culture ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12

2.4 Principles of organizational culture ……………………………………………………………………….. 12

2.5 History of organizational culture …………………………………………………………………………… 13

2.6 Organizational excellence …………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

2.7 Strong and weak organizational culture ………………………………………………………………….. 14

2.8 Creating positive organizational culture …………………………………………………………………. 15

2.9 Effectiveness and adequacy of organizational culture ………………………………………………. 16

2.10 Types of organizational culture …………………………………………………………………………… 16

2.11 Organizational culture and its impact on corporate performance ……………………………… 17

2.12 Change in organizational culture …………………………………………………………………………. 18

2.13 Models and theories of organizational culture ……………………………………………………….. 18

2.14 Impact of organizational culture in employee management …………………………………….. 20

2.15 Corporate culture in productivity …………………………………………………………………………. 21

2.16 Organizational culture in customer satisfaction ……………………………………………………… 21

2.17 Organizational culture’s influence upon business improvement ……………………………….. 22

2.18 Gaps in Literature ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

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2.19 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22

Chapter 3: Research Methodology………………………………………………………………………………. 23

3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23

3.2 Method outline ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

3.3 Research onion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

3.4 Research Philosophy ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 24

3.5 Research approach ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25

3.6 Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

3.7 Data collection method ………………………………………………………………………………………… 26

3.8 Data source…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

3.9 Data analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

3.10 Sampling method ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

3.11 Population and sampling size………………………………………………………………………………. 27

3.12 Accessibility issues ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

3.13 Ethical consideration ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

3.14 Research limitation ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 28

3.15 Timetable of the research ……………………………………………………………………………………. 29

3.16 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29

Chapter 4 Findings and Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………… 30

4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30

4.2 Data collection for Quantitative Analysis ……………………………………………………………….. 30

Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation ………………………………………………………………… 70

5.1 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70

5.2 Linking with the objectives …………………………………………………………………………………… 71

5.3 Recommendation ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73

5.4 Limitation of research ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74

5.5 Future scope of study …………………………………………………………………………………………… 75

5.6 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 75

Reference List ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 77

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List of Figures

Figure 1: Dissertation Structure ………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

Figure 2: Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Figure 3: Types of organizational culture …………………………………………………………………….. 17

Figure 4: Edgar Schein Model ……………………………………………………………………………………. 18

Figure 5: Sanctuary Model of Corporate Culture ………………………………………………………….. 19

Figure 6: Organizational Theory and Design………………………………………………………………… 20

Figure 7: Research Onion ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Figure 8: Research Philosophy …………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Figure 9: Research Approach……………………………………………………………………………………… 25

Figure 10: Research Design ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

Figure 11: Data Collection Method …………………………………………………………………………….. 26

Figure 12: Data Source ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 27

Figure 13: Gantt chart ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 29

Figure 14: Satisfaction measure of the supervision in the companies ………………………………. 32

Figure 15: Satisfaction level of the job training programes …………………………………………….. 36

Figure 16: Satisfaction level of the leadership of directors’ and managers in the company … 40

Figure 17: Organization supports professional development and career growth ……………….. 44

Figure 18: Conflict resolution mechanism implemented in your company ……………………….. 48

Figure 19: Code of Ethics in organization is appropriately designed and implemented ……… 52

Table 20: Satisfaction level on the motivational strategies and reward system adopted by the

company ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56

Figure 21: Communication and feedback mechanism implemented within the company …… 60

Figure 22: Most important factor influencing organizational culture in company ……………… 64

Figure 23: Factors of organizational culture to be given more importance ……………………….. 68

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List of Tables

Table 1: Satisfaction measure of the supervision in the companies …………………………………. 32

Table 2: Satisfaction level of the job training programs …………………………………………………. 36

Table 3: Satisfaction level of the leadership of directors’ and managers in the company ……. 40

Table 4: Organization supports professional development and career growth …………………… 44

Table 5: Conflict resolution mechanism implemented in your company ………………………….. 48

Table 6: Code of Ethics in organization is appropriately designed and implemented…………. 52

Table 7: Satisfaction level on the motivational strategies and reward system adopted by the

company ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56

Table 8: Communication and feedback mechanism implemented within the company ……… 60

Table 9: Most important factor influencing organizational culture in company ………………… 64

Table 10: Factors of organizational culture to be given more importance ………………………… 68

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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Organizational culture determines effective working prospects and significance of respective

companies of specific countries. Positive working culture motivates every employee of a

respective company in order to reflect business segments through efficient working procedures

and methods. Moreover, culture of companies also evaluates, rather modifies working

prospects and performances of every employee of a company. This is to be justified that

productivity, customer satisfaction, employee management, relationship, communication

process etc. all are highly depended upon corporate culture evidently. This research study

analyzes organizational cultures of five respective chemical companies in Saudi Arabia so that

the readers get an effective, rather influential opinion and concept regarding organizational

culture of different business institutions as well. The companies are mentioned as Naam

chemicals, Sadara chemical company, Reza chemical, Fouz chemical and Delmon group of

companies. These companies and their organizational cultures are defined and analyzed

through significant data and information including SPSS, which are researched by the

researchers in order to highlight reflective and signified implications of organizational culture

and performance as well.

1.2 Background of the topic

Performance of a respective company depends upon organizational culture, which is the chief

topic of this research study. It is to be defined that organizational culture helps every company

to increase economic aspects and capital rates so that no difficulty or trouble can affect the

management in any way. However, the mentioned five respective chemical companies of Saudi

Arabia are competing between each other in order to gain significant and reputed marketplace.

In this respect, it must be evaluated that those five companies should keep in their minds that

organizational culture and significance must highlight and transmits their performance and

adequacy. Therefore, they must handle their culture fruitfully in order to maintain market

evaluation, customer loyalty, brand loyalty and so on.

1.3 Background of the companies

NAMA Chemicals: Nama chemicals group’s another title is NAMA. This company is attached

with Taduwal listed company (www.aandesigners.com, A.2017). Taduwal listed company was

established in the year of 1992. Headquarter of this company is situated in Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

This company is under Petrochemical industry as well.

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Sadara Chemicals Company: Sadara Chemical Company is another partner of The Dow

Chemical Company and Saudi Aramco Companies as well. This company has been established

in the month of October 2011. Total investment of this company is US$20 billion

(Sadara.com.2017). This is also a petrochemical company and headquarter of this company is

situated in Jubail, Saudi Arabia.

Reza Chemical: Reza chemical company is a significant chemical company situated in Saudi

Arabia. This company is established in the year of 1979 as well (Rezachemical.com.2017). The

headquarter of this company is situated in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This is a significant

component of Reza Investment Co. Ltd. This is a significant and renowned company of high

quality chemical products and FMCG.

Fouz Chemical: Fouz chemical company also is established in 1979. The branch offices of

this company are situated in Dammam. This company has a number of chemical laboratory and

companies scattered in different places as well (Fouz.com.sa.2017). Moreover, it is to be

notified that this company provides more than 100 chemical products to its customers

evidently.

Delmon group of companies: Delmon Group of companies is also a part of Dammam, which

is the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This company is invented in the year of 1981 (Delmon Group

of Companies.2017). In this company, there are 500 or more than 500 employees respectively.

This company is significant in manufacturing, engineering, trading and marketing group at a

glance.

1.4 Problem Statement

Organizational or corporate culture signifies significant attitude, behaviour of every respective

employer and employee in order to evaluate and develop business perspectives and prospects

as well. The problem statement of this research study is to analyze company profiles, employee

management, customer satisfaction, productivity etc. This is because; all these aspects are to

be justified and analyzed by the managers of five respective mentioned companies so that they

can be able to highlight their working performances and organizational cultures as well.

1.5 Aim of the study

The chief aim of the study is to analyze significant objectives and rules that should be

maintained by respective managers of all the mentioned companies regarding organizational

culture and performance. The study also includes researching elements and information of

employee management, productivity of chemical products, relationship and communication

among employers and employees of all the five companies.

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1.6 Objectives of the study

• To understand the roles or purpose of organizational culture in every specified company

• To evaluate strategic movement and planning of organizational culture in every

company

• To define change management and its impact upon organizational culture

• To clarify and notify relationship between organizational culture and business

performance

1.7 Research questions

Research questions are highly depended upon the significant research objectives of this

research study. However, the questions are mentioned below:

• What are the chief purposes of organizational culture in order to develop business of

specified companies?

• How should the roles or purpose of organizational culture be maintained in every

respective business company?

• What are the significance and importance of organizational culture in every business

company?

• Why are the changes needed in strategies and planning of organizational culture in

mentioned business companies?

• How are organizational culture and business performance are interrelated?

1.8 Research Hypothesis

There is no relationship between organizational culture and corporate performance.

There is a significant relationship between corporate culture and performance.

1.9 Rationale of the study

Culture holds every aspect of business organizations, including both positive and negative

aspect. It is to be mentioned that not all the organizations are prepared well to reflect their

culture significantly. The chief issue of these organizations is that they are unable to highlight

their business purpose and significance.

The issue is faced by the organizations, as they do not have effective and significant corporate

culture within their management as well. However, respective managers should try to evaluate

their strategies and planning regarding productivity, employee management and customer

satisfaction in order to highlight their culture as well.

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The five respective companies are trying to involve significant organizational culture in order

to highlight and reflect their performances significantly. In this respect, they are facing

irrespective troubles and difficulties, as they do not have appropriate strategies regarding

employee management, productivity, customer satisfaction and so on.

This significant research study is trying to involve effective strategies and planning so that the

respective companies are able to highlight their working elements and performances in Saudi

Arabia.

1.10 Purpose of the study

Role or purpose of the study is to analyze significance and importance of organizational culture

in every specific business organization. Moreover, the study also discusses how corporate

culture can be implemented and what planning and strategies are required in order to imply and

involve significant management culture within all the companies as well. This study specifies

the need of changes in strategies and planning of highlighted culture of organization. Along

with this, the study defines and describes relationship between organizational culture and

business performance as well. Other than this, it must be evaluated in the research study that

researchers need to verify and clarify all the significant objectives and perspectives of

implementing and evaluating a respective culture in a company. It also describes the ways and

procedures of implementing essential and important objectives in order to maintain and manage

a significant culture within an organization so that the employers and employees do not be able

to change the respective positive culture into an irrespective negative one as well.

1.11 Structure of the dissertation

The researchers of this research study represent their discussion, research topics, researching

analysis in five respective chapters. The chapters have been furnished with significant data,

information, and analysis of the research topics significantly and adequately. The chapters have

been followed in the figure that has been represented in this context below:

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Figure 1: Dissertation Structure

(Source: Created by the researcher)

1.12 Summary

The introduction part submits significant discussion and targets of the research study so that

the readers and observers of this research study can be understood all the objectives and

information of organizational culture significantly. Moreover, it is to be defined that every

company including Reze chemicals, Naam chemicals group, Sadara Chemical Company, Fouz

Company and Delmon group of company are the significant chemical companies of Saudi

Arabia, which are represented in this context in order to describe and define the effectiveness

and reflection of corporate culture upon their business performances influentially. Moreover,

it is to be defined that research objectives and questions are presented in this context in order

to discuss evaluation and essentialities of organizational culture significantly. This is because;

organizational culture highly evaluates and reflects corporate performance fundamentally and

evidently as well.

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Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Literature review denotes organizational culture and its performance in order to improve and

evaluate a respective business company. Literature review is an essential component of a

significant research study, which presents support, and proof of the objectives that researchers

have been analysed thoroughly in their research study as well. This is because, literature review

involves renowned persons’ comments and speeches regarding the topic of the research study.

Those included comments and speeches are highly influential and respective which help the

readers, business analysts and professionals to understand the respective topic and analysis of

the topic influentially and remarkably. Regarding organizational culture and its performance,

researchers have involved a number of comments and speeches, which have been mentioned

by respective and significant persons including authors, business analysts and professionals

and so on. According to De Bono et al. (2014, p.5), it is to be signified that culture is highly

depended on reflecting a society significantly. Similarly, organizational culture is essential in

order to highlight and reflect a significant business company and its business prospects and

perspectives. This is because, if culture is significant and adequate, employees are able to work

actively and energetically. On the other hand, if culture is not significant and influential,

employees do not get encouragement to work significantly and productively.

2.2 Conceptual framework

Figure 2: Conceptual Framework

(Source: Created by the researcher)

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2.3 Organizational culture

Organizational culture explains a number of ethical behaviour and considerations, that

employers and employees of a respective organization should maintain and manage. This is

because, business development and improvement is highly depended upon organizational

culture. Organizational culture also includes dress code of employees, way of communication,

behavioural styles and approaches and so on. As cited by Ashkanasy and Dorris (2017, p.106),

business development and evaluation is highly depended upon the employees’ working styles

and aspects, behaviours and attitudes, timing schedule of arriving and departure in office etc.

Moreover, it is to be highlighted that all these aspects are unified together under the umbrella

of organizational culture fundamentally.

However, if all the aspects and components of organizational culture are not managed and

maintained adequately in a respective organization, business development and evaluation is

not be possible for that organization as well. Therefore, it is to be mentioned that every

organization and its management should be careful and attentive while creating and evaluating

their culture. They should maintain timing or duty hours of every respective employee

according to their job roles and responsibilities. As opined by Hartnell et al. (2016, p.846), they

should fix remuneration process of every respective employee significantly. Remuneration is

significant in order to maintain a culture of organization. This is because, employees are highly

encouraged and motivated if they get correct amount of remuneration accordingly.

2.4 Principles of organizational culture

Organizational culture contains number of significant principles, which are evaluating and

significant for the development, and improvement of a respective business organization. It is

to be defined that all such principles are significant for the culture as employers and employees

are highly motivated in their job responsibilities. However, the principles are discussed

thoroughly below in this context:

Maintaining current situations: Organizational culture should be maintained after observing

and evaluating current situations of a respective organization. This is because current situations

were highlighted and signified in order to evaluate the culture significantly. Culture denotes

dressing sense, behaviours etc. of every employer and employee as well.

Changing behaviours: Organizational culture should also be maintained by changing

behaviours of every employee. In this respect, it must be evaluated and justified that which

employees are needed to change their behaviours and attitudes. As cited by Alvesson and

Sveningsson (2015, p.100), manager should highlight those employees’ behaviour, which is

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needed to be changed and should change their behaviours influentially according to appropriate

culture and performance of an organization.

Focusing on reflective behaviour: Regarding principles of organizational culture, managers

need to highlight and to focus upon the employers and employees. They should have reflective

behaviours and attitudes significantly. Moreover, it is to be justified that those behaviours of

the employees should not be changed that are according to influential organizational culture as

well.

Receiving suggestions from formal leaders: While evaluating and developing a respective

organizational culture, managers need to receive and take suggestions from formal leaders and

analysts. This is because organizational culture needs effective ideas and concepts of formal

business leaders and analysts influentially.

2.5 History of organizational culture

Organizational culture has introduced in different business companies from the late 1970s. It

takes a larger shape and is highly valuable in developing business perspectives of business

management from the early-mid 1980s as well. In this respect, it is to be defined that Peters

and Waterman have described features and significance of organizational culture of significant

and influential companies’ performances in the year of 1982. Moreover, it has been observed

that in 1985, Schein described evaluation and reflection of organizational culture. He also

divides corporate culture into three respective parts, which are included as assumptions, values

and artifacts. Assumption is the component, which highlights working rules and regulations

that have been included within a company but unofficial. Values depend on working

perspectives, strategies and planning significantly. The last part, artifacts reflect organizational

culture including working styles, working responsibilities and so on. As cited by Alvesson and

Sveningsson (2015, p.109), it is to be defined that in the most recent days, a number of business

analysts, authors and professionals are describing values and importance of culture of

organization in different books, journals, articles and magazines.

It is also to be informed that more than 150 companies in United States are getting advantages

and benefits in their business performances and aspects for highlighted and influential business

culture and strategies. Therefore, from this detailed discussion, it has been proved that

organizational culture and its history help the recent business managers and professionals to

include significant organizational culture within their management influentially and

respectively.

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2.6 Organizational excellence

Organizational excellence is highly depended upon internal and external environment and

atmosphere of a respective organization. Moreover, it is to be highlighted that internal and

external strategies and planning of a respective organization is highly included in

organizational culture in order to make the culture excellent. Other than this, it is to be signified

that all the employers and employees need to be active and energetic in order to influence a

culture of their organization. This is because culture needs to be significant in order to highlight

their business perspectives and objectives. According to Chatterjee (2016, p.37), business

components include strategies, structures, planning and designs of respective company both

internally and externally. In this respect, it is to be signified that if the structures and planning

are not established evidently, companies are not be possible for improvement and productivity.

Moreover, it is to be justified that organizational excellence and culture are highly interrelated

with each other, as excellence is possible if culture is developed and improved as well.

2.7 Strong and weak organizational culture

Strong and weak organizational culture have a number of different aspects and perspectives,

which are highlighted by respective managers of a significant business organization. A strong

organizational culture contains effective communication process, bonding and friendly

relationship among all the employees and employers of that company. Moreover, remuneration

process, stakeholders and significant business environment and atmosphere are also included

within a significant and strong culture of organization. No other culture or aspects can be able

to break or weaken this strong culture in those organizations, which have this strong culture of

organization as well.

Regarding weak organizational culture, it must be signified that inadequate communication

process, weaker relationship among employers and employees are highlighted within an

organization. Moreover, it has been specified that if organizations do not contain well

remuneration process and fail to manage other components and business perspectives

irrespectively, they do not have strong future of organization, it mean they have failed to

involve significant organizational culture and therefore, they have weak organizational culture

as well. However, it is also to be mentioned that the organizations, which have weak culture of

organization, needs to evaluate their working aspects and styles including the overall

components of business so that they can be able to influence their culture and to make stronger

culture of organization significantly.

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2.8 Creating positive organizational culture

In order to create a positive organizational culture, managers need to highlight significant

points or methods, which are highly rewarding and effective. It is to be mentioned that positive

organizational culture helps a respective organization to influence and manage their business

perspectives and significance. However, this positivism of organizational culture can be

signified through different parts or procedures, which have been discussed in this context

thoroughly.

Defining legacy: Legacy or bereavement should be maintained and highlighted in a respective

organization significantly. This is because, if an employee does not get effective and according

remuneration to his working responsibilities, he will definitely leave that specific company

within a short period, which is unachievable for the company as well. Therefore, the company

needs to highlight their every perspective regarding remuneration, working aspects, job roles,

employee management, healthcare steps and so on.

Recruiting smartly: In order to maintain positivism in organizational culture, managers need

to recruit and select mostly talented candidates within their company. This is because, without

talent and capability, employees never be able to maintain effective rules and regulations

regarding positive organizational culture significantly.

Listening properly: Regarding positive culture of an organization, listening method should

also be maintained adequately. As opined by Dagiliene (2015, p.99), managers and employees

need to communicate with each other rewardingly. Moreover, they should listen to each other

properly so that they do not have any confusion regarding a specific topic, they have discussed

with each other respectively.

Engaging influential employees and actions: Positive organizational culture can be involved

within an organization significantly, if the employers engage significant employees and their

influential behaviour and attitude effectively. In this respect, training and development is

needed. Survey is also needed in order to observe which employees are effective and talented

regarding their behaviour and attitude accordingly.

Rewarding significance: Rewarding system should also need to include as this system helps

the employees to get motivated for their working styles and responsibilities. In this respect, it

is to be signified that if the employees do not get correct encouragement and motivation, they

get bored to explore uniqueness and evaluation in their working aspects and significance.

Getting ready for change: If in an organization, some faults or crises occur, managers should

evaluate and mitigate those faults and crisis in order to develop the culture significantly.

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Moreover, it is to be informed that managers should change their culture and atmosphere in

order to develop their culture and performance. However, change management is highly

effective and significant for this respect of influencing and developing organizational culture

adequately.

2.9 Effectiveness and adequacy of organizational culture

Organizational culture involves significant strategies and planning which are highly influential

and respective for different business companies. This is because, if culture of organization is

highly motivated and adequate, productivity of business products or services must be

developed in an organization. According to Ali and Patnaik (2014, p.16), if productivity

developed and increased, customers’ satisfaction is obvious and definite. As a result,

organizations become successful in order to increase their rates of capital and economic value

influentially. However, it is to be highlighted that if the business companies do not include

significant and influential culture, they cannot be able to develop their productivity and as a

result, customers’ satisfaction is not possible for them as well. However, it is to be defined that

corporate culture is adequate and effective in order to maintain business aspects including

working styles, responsibilities, and strategies and so on.

2.10 Types of organizational culture

Corporate culture is of different types and those types should be included in respective business

companies according to their business styles and management. It is to be signified that the types

are clan culture, adhocracy culture, market culture, hierarchy culture and so on.

Clan culture: Clan culture is evaluating and significant for every respective management

regarding their business perspectives. This culture denotes a friendly environment in an

organization. As opined by Valmohammadi and Roshanzamir (2015, p.167), managers and

employees work together and perform their own according responsibilities, but they share their

own thoughts and views of business prospects with each other. This sharing motif helps them

to evaluate and to create unique adequate strategies and working segments influentially. Human

resource management is an essential part of this culture as well.

Adhocracy culture: Adhocracy culture is creative working environment. In this culture,

employees invent risk for their working styles and responsibilities and employers take risks

and try to mitigate with reflective plans and strategies. Other than this, it is to be justified that

this culture helps respective business companies to work reflectively in future.

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Figure 3: Types of organizational culture

(Source: Wiewiora et al. 2013, p.1163)

Market culture: This culture designates the managers to observe and receive information

regarding current market culture of business aspects. Then the managers involve significant

working styles and responsibilities so that their companies become successful and achieve

reputed market position as well. Moreover, it is to be justified that employers and employees

become competitive in this culture and try to take their companies forward in financial aspects,

productivity and customer satisfaction.

Hierarchy culture: Hierarchy culture signifies formal and corporate based working styles and

management. Through this culture, leaders, managers and other respective employers lead and

train every employee of their company and employees should maintain their command

respectively and accordingly. As cited by Reason (2016, p.109), official rules, procedures,

methods are highly significant and essential in this respective culture of management

adequately.

2.11 Organizational culture and its impact on corporate performance

Corporate performance is depended upon management style and culture evidently. This is

because, highlighted culture influences and motivates employees to work resultantly and

remarkably. In this respect, it is to be highlighted that corporate performance includes

rewarding production of business products or services, in time delivery to the customers,

managing employees, appropriate training and development, remuneration and salary of

employers etc. Therefore, according to Lee et al. (2013, p.1716), it is to be highlighted that

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culture is highly valuable and significant in order to maintain corporate performance in every

company as well.

2.12 Change in organizational culture

Change management is also required in order to influence and to make culture of respective

companies significant and adequate. Managers should be careful and attentive in this respect.

This is because, if they observe or follow some crisis or irrespective faults in culture of their

companies, they must evaluate their strategies and working plans in order to mitigate and avoid

such crisis and faults as well. Moreover, they are able to change some specific objectives and

plans of business prospects in order to signify and evaluate their culture influentially and

relevantly. However, if change does not occur in culture, managers will be unable to evaluate

their culture of organization and as a result; corporate performance will be decreased

eventually.

2.13 Models and theories of organizational culture

A number of models and theories are applicable and significant for corporate culture, which is

highly valuable for every respective business institution. However, such models and theories

are significant and justified, which have been discussed thoroughly below:

2.13.1 Edgar Schein Model

Edgar Schein has defined corporate culture in respective three steps, which are included as

assumptions, values and artifacts. Assumptions are defined as unofficial rules and regulations

that are engaged in a company in order to highlight their cultural values and prospects. Values

involve specific highlighted working aspects and styles, which are influential and justified.

Moreover, artifacts include official rules and regulations, which are applicable for working

styles and responsibilities of every employer and employee respectively.

Figure 4: Edgar Schein Model

(Source: Schein et al. 2015, p.106)

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2.13.2 The Sanctuary Model

Sanctuary model involves seven significant steps, which helps a corporate culture to develop

their refectory elements in order to highlight their business significance in the current market

place. It is to be justified that those steps are highlighted as nonviolence, growth and change,

emotional intelligence, social learning, open communication, social responsibility and

democracy.

Figure 5: Sanctuary Model of Corporate Culture

(Source: Bloom, 2013, p.111)

Nonviolence directs all the employees of a company not to commit any crime or violent

activities, which may destroy working environment of the company. Growth and change

evaluates respective implications, mitigates crisis, faults of a respective company, and helps

the management to improve and develop their working elements and significance. Emotional

intelligence is another significant step, which helps the managers to observe and to value

psychological aspects and emotional affections of employees so that they can be able to

influence them accordingly. Social learning is involved in this model so that the managers

include and highlight social responsibilities while dealing with employees and customers. Open

communication is also essential in order to improve a culture of company as without effective

communication, employers and employees cannot be able to work actively and improve their

quality of work significantly.

2.13.3 Organizational theory and design

Organizational theory and design includes effective steps and perspectives, which are highly

significant and influential for corporate culture and performance. In this theory, goals,

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strategies, size, technology, structure, culture and environment are highly notified and adequate

reflectively. Goals or targets should be fixed through discussion between employers and

employees. If goals or targets are not fixed, designation and success are impossible for a

respective company. Strategies or planning are decided in respect of goals. However, culture,

environment, atmosphere etc. should also be perfect and according. Otherwise, companies

cannot be able to influence their working significance and achieve a reputed position within

the marketplace as well.

Figure 6: Organizational Theory and Design

(Source: Giachetti, 2016, p.107)

2.14 Impact of organizational culture in employee management

Organizational culture is evaluative and influential in order to manage employees or service

workers of a respective business institution. It is to be specified that employees are influenced

by effective culture of organizations. If a company holds significant working environment,

atmosphere or culture, employees get influenced and motivated and start working energetically

and actively. Moreover, it is to be specified that in a respective and influential culture,

promotion system should be included. This is because, if a talented employee works

influentially and fruitfully, he must get promotion or higher post in his company. This system

encouraged employees to work more influentially and adequately in near future. On the other

hand, demotion should also be included in a company so that the employees get warning

regarding their negative and irrespective working aspects. In this regard, the employees try to

evaluate their working styles and try to produce influential products and services for their

customers as well.

21

Remuneration process is another significant part of employee management. This is because, if

employees do not get justified and satisfied remuneration according to their responsibilities

and working styles, they get demotivated. As a result, they start to neglect their work

responsibilities and productivity and quality of products or services are also get decreased

accordingly.

Therefore, remuneration process, communication system, teamwork etc. should be improved

and included in corporate culture so that the employee management get also highlighted and

adequate evidently and efficiently.

2.15 Corporate culture in productivity

Corporate culture and productivity are interrelated with each other in every respective business

company. It is to be justified that productivity includes significant production of business

products and services maintaining high quality of those products or services as well. Moreover,

it must be specified that providing or selling high quality products or services to the customers

in low cost or price rates is also included as a part of productivity. However, all these aspects

and components are chiefly managed or maintained through reflective and fruitful culture of

company as well. Other than this, it is to be identified that regarding productivity, employees

have to perform significant and chief responsibilities as well. In this regard, employees need

significant corporate culture to work influentially and justifiably. Moreover, it is to be

highlighted that if working environment is not maintained in culture of company, employees

cannot be able to produce high quality products for which the customers get satisfaction as

well.

However, it is to be evaluated that culture should be notified and noticeable in order to

influence and to maintain relevance in productivity. Productivity is a specific reason or

component to gain success and to achieve reputed position in its marketplace.

2.16 Organizational culture in customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction is also depended on corporate culture as well. This is because; corporate

culture helps or guides employees to work actively and evidently. If employees produce

business products or services maintaining high quality, customers will be highly satisfied with

the quality products and their long period of validity. If a business product is sold to the

customers in high price rates in a company, and its valid period is too low, customers get

dissatisfied with the products and with the company as well. On the other hand, it is to be

informed that if a company serves its customers with high quality products in low price rates

or costs and its valid period is long-term, customers will be satisfied influentially and

22

relevantly. In this respect, another significant point is relationship between employers and

employees is also notified. This is because, friendly relationship helps them to discuss

regarding their production and customer satisfaction and as a result, they are able to include

highlighted and reflective strategies to produce significant and high quality products or services

and to satisfy customers evidently.

2.17 Organizational culture’s influence upon business improvement

Business development and improvement is a reflection of corporate or business culture. This

is because, if culture is not improved and evaluated, business significance and evidence is

impossible. Employees, their working activities, styles, their motivation and encouragement

are highly depended upon the culture of their company. As cited by Rosemann and vom Brocke

(2015, p.105), if these aspects run or continue positively, business improvement cannot be

obstructed by any other objective or component as well. Therefore, it must be justified that

culture should be evaluated and developed by respective managers in order to influence and

improve business management significantly.

2.18 Gaps in Literature

According to respective business analysts, business improvement needs effective and

significant organizational culture. However, organizational culture is not the only topic that

can be able to highlight business significance and objectives as well.

As per some other respective business professionals, customer satisfaction is possible if

managers manage culture influentially and evidently. If culture is the only objective to satisfy

the customers, then products, costs and change management do not have value to satisfy the

customers as well.

However, these above mentioned points and objectives are the gaps in literature review of

organizational or corporate culture as well. Managers, business analysts, researchers need to

evaluate, to include and to prove some other respective objectives and notifications, which can

be able to mitigate those, gaps that has been mentioned above.

2.19 Conclusion

In order to conclude, it is to be mentioned that literature review signifies reflective and evident

comments and speeches of renowned persons in order to support the analysis and research of

researchers regarding organizational culture and corporate performance. However, though

literature review has some gaps, still the aspects and objectives of literature help the researchers

to prove their analysis and research significantly and reflectively.

23

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

Methodology includes reflective methods of techniques, which help respective researchers to

research or analyze a significant research study in order to provide supports and information

regarding the topic to the readers as well. In this respect, it is to be defined that this chapter

helps the researchers and analysts to find out and point out innovative and significant

techniques of research including diagrams, paradigms, models and theories respectively.

Moreover, it is to be defined that research topic denotes the researchers to designate the

research process including quantitative or qualitative methods as well. This research study

needs quantitative research method, through which researchers can be able to find out

researching data and information for the research study as well.

3.2 Method outline

Every respective component and part is important and effective in order to gather methods and

techniques of researching a significant research topic. Method outline indicates the researcher’s

significant techniques and methods of a research study in order to analyze significantly.

Moreover, it is to be mentioned that method outline indicates research philosophy, data sources,

data collection analysis and so on (Bryman and Bell, 2015, p.111). However, for this research

study, researchers need to select quantitative data collection in order to collect data for five

respective chemical companies in Saudi Arabia. It is to be informed that 125 respondents of

those five companies are selected in order to gather primary data through online survey and

SPSS is highly reflective and effective in order to analyze data and information significantly.

3.3 Research onion

Research onion is equipment, which helps the researchers to point out the steps regarding their

research analysis of a significant topic. In this respect, it is to be defined that research onion

has six respective parts and these parts are situated in according layers of the onion. At the first

outer layer, there has been placed research philosophy. Second, is research approaches, third

one is strategies, fourth part is choices, fifth part is time horizons and the last part is techniques

and procedures as well. However, it is to be defined that through these six parts, research onion

is highly significant and helpful accordingly.

24

Figure 7: Research Onion

(Source: Saunders et al. 2009, p.819)

3.4 Research Philosophy

Research philosophy helps every respective researcher to understand and to be familiar with

all parts and components of a significant topic. There can be included three respective research

philosophies, which are positivism, post positivism and realism. Research philosophy suggests

the researchers to define and describe the topic and information of the topic to the readers as

well. However, it is to be signified that for this particular topic, positivism research philosophy

has been chosen significantly. Positivism theory is significant in order to gather positive

information and data regarding organizational culture of five respective companies in Saudi

Arabia as well.

Figure 8: Research Philosophy

(Source: Knobe and Nichols, 2013, p.109)

25

3.5 Research approach

Research approach is significant and essential in order to evaluate and develop specific topics

of research study as well. Research approaches are included as inductive and deductive

approach. In this research study, deductive research approach is selected. Deductive research

approach helps the researchers and analysts to gain knowledge and information thoroughly

regarding the topic as well. Moreover, deductive approach also helps researchers to adopt and

highlight theories and models, which are highly applicable in order to gain knowledge and

information regarding the specific topic as well.

Figure 9: Research Approach

(Source: Friend and Jessop, 2013)

3.6 Research Design

Research design of a particular topic helps the researchers and analyst to design or structure

the topics of the research topic and to analyze the topics thoroughly. Three designs are there

including descriptive, explanatory and exploratory research designs. These designs help the

researcher to describe and analyze their research study in order to provide current analysis and

information to the readers.

Figure 10: Research Design

(Source: Yin, 2013, p.117)

26

Descriptive research design has been selected for this research study as well. This is because,

descriptive research design helps the researchers to describe and define research topics

thoroughly and adequately. Moreover, this design helps the researchers to identify and point

the issues and problems while analyzing the research topic.

3.7 Data collection method

There are two significant methods of collecting data, which are included as quantitative and

qualitative data collection. In this respect, it is to be defined that for this specific research study,

quantitative data collection method has been chosen. This is because, 15 respondents have been

chosen in order to collect data through online. Therefore, it is clear that it must be quantitative

data collection method. Moreover, mathematical tool and data are required in order to analyze

organizational culture of five companies in Saudi Arabia.

Figure 11: Data Collection Method

(Source: Nomano et al. 2014, p.1379)

Qualitative information includes quality and culture of respective topics, which is not important

and essential in this respect as well as this data collection method helps to identify and analyze

quality information of a respective topic of research study as well.

3.8 Data source

Data sources include primary and secondary as well. Primary data source signifies face-to-face

interview, questionnaires, and surveys and so on. Secondary sources include collecting or

gathering data and information through books, journals, articles and online services as well.

For this research topic, primary sources have been given priority to gather data and information.

This is because, from five respective companies of Saudi Arabia, 125 respondents have been

selected in order to prepare a survey through online. Secondary data source is used less than

primary data source in this respective research study.

27

Figure 12: Data Source

(Source: Waltman and Costas, 2014, p.433)

3.9 Data analysis

After getting or collecting data, it needs to be analyzed by the researchers in order to describe

different problems and solutions of the significant topic of the research topic. Data analysis

helps the readers to understand effective issues and its resolutions, which are highlighted by

the researchers through data analysis as well.

3.10 Sampling method

Regarding sampling method, probability and non-probability methods are specified

significantly. Probability sampling method includes equal opportunities of every respondent to

explore their thoughts and information regarding the topic (Forton and De Maertelaer, 2017,

p.101). Regarding non-probability sampling method, it is to be defined that respondents do not

have equal opportunities to explore their information and data regarding the topic as well.

However, regarding this research study, it is to be defined that probability-sampling method

has been selected as 125 respondents have been selected from five respective chemical

companies of Saudi Arabia as well.

3.11 Population and sampling size

Population and sampling size are also significant and essential for respective topic of the

research study. Overall people, who are highly connected and interrelated with respective topic

of the research study, is known as the population. Sampling size includes respective people or

respondents who are providing information and data to the researchers and analysts regarding

the topic of research study. In this research study, 125 respondents have been selected in order

to gather and collect SPSS data through online survey or questionnaires as well.

28

3.12 Accessibility issues

While researching or analyzing a significant research study, it is to be justified that researchers

face a number of accessibility issues irrespectively. In order to enter the five respective

companies of Saudi Arabia, they need gate pass or permission to enter (Shigeno et al. 2013,

p.24). In this respect, they sometimes do not get permission to enter into the chemical

organizations significantly. Moreover, it is to be highlighted that managers remain busy with

their working schedule and time. As a result, they are unable to provide extra time for

researchers as well. Therefore, the researchers face difficulties and issues in order to get

effective information from the managers. Moreover, effective research analysis needs high

budget rates and sometimes researchers face financial crisis, which is another accessibility

issue regarding researching and analysis.

3.13 Ethical consideration

Researchers also need to maintain ethics while collecting data and researching. Researchers

should be careful and attentive while gathering data and information regarding a topic. They

should not explore companies’ data and information for commercial purposes. In this respect,

it must be signified that while collecting data and information, researchers should be careful

that any data should not disclose companies’ policies and procedures (Bray et al. 2015, p.157).

In this research study, researchers need to collect SPSS data through online process and

therefore, the researchers should keep these above-mentioned ethics significantly.

3.14 Research limitation

Researchers also face some limitation while finishing the analysis of a respective research

study. In this respect, time, money, required data etc are the significant limited topic as well.

This is because, researchers do not have enough time to find out and gather significant data and

information regarding a specific topic. Moreover, it is to be highlighted that researchers need

to provide havoc amount of money in order to research or analyze properly and significantly.

Research data and information are also limited, as researchers do not have enough time or

money to collect and identify it as well.

29

3.15 Timetable of the research

Figure 13: Gantt chart

(Source: Created by the researcher)

3.16 Conclusion

It is to be defined at the end of this chapter of research methodology; researchers provide

significant techniques and procedures of collecting and gathering data of SPSS, which is

significant and adequate to identify the culture of five respective chemical organizations of

Saudi Arabia. Moreover, this chapter also signifies and defines that data source is highly

depended upon the research topic and study as well.

30

Chapter 4 Findings and Analysis

4.1 Introduction

Through the findings and analysis chapter the researchers plans to measure and evaluate the

role of culture involved in the creation of the identity of an organization. Taking help of the

quantitative data collection methods, the researcher undertakes the activity of assessing the

importance of culture within organizations in Saudi Arabia and explores show it creates an

impact on the performance of the employees. With respect to this chapter, the researcher

analyses the data, collected from the employees by applying quantitative techniques and

responses of the respondents. The researcher faces certain problems in the form of data

manipulation, collection of incomplete and inaccurate data during the process of data

collection. On completion of the data collection method, the researcher analyses the data inputs

in order to provide a conclusion received from the analysis of the data.

4.2 Data collection for Quantitative Analysis

In the section, the respondents of five eminent chemical companies in Saudi Arabia namely,

Delmon group of companies, Reza chemicals, Sadara chemicals, Fouz chemicals and NAMA

chemical groups have been chosen. The questions put forward to the respondents of the entities

are analyzed hereafter.

31

1) How far you are satisfied with the supervision mechanism in the organization?

Op

tio

ns

Delmon group

of companies

Reza

chemicals

Sadara

chemicals

Fouz

chemicals

NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Str

on

gly

sati

sfi

ed

20 50 40 12 50 24 5 50 10 10 50 20 6 50 12

sati

sfi

ed

10 50 20 8 50 16 10 50 20 16 50 32 16 50 32

Ne

utr

al

14 50 28 15 50 30 15 50 30 13 50 26 18 50 36

Dis

sati

sfi

ed

6 50 12 15 50 30 20 50 40 11 50 22 10 50 20

32

Table 1: Satisfaction measure of the supervision in the companies

Figure 14: Satisfaction measure of the supervision in the companies

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 6.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 5.97216 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Strongly satisfied, Delmon group of companies % of respondents, 40Strongly satisfied,

Reza chemicals % of respondents,

24

Strongly satisfied, Sadara chemicals % of respondents,

10

Strongly satisfied, Fouz chemicals % of respondents,

20 Strongly satisfied, Nama chemical

groups % of respondents, 12

satisfied, Delmon group of

companies % of respondents, 20 satisfied, Reza

chemicals % of respondents, 16

satisfied, Sadara chemicals % of

respondents, 20

satisfied, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 32

satisfied, Nama chemical groups %

of respondents, 32

Neutral, Delmon group of

companies % of respondents, 28

Neutral, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 30

Neutral, Sadara chemicals % of

respondents, 30 Neutral, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 26

Neutral, Nama chemical groups %

of respondents, 36

Dissatisfied, Delmon group of companies % of respondents, 12

Dissatisfied, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 30

Dissatisfied, Sadara chemicals % of respondents,

40

Dissatisfied, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 22

Dissatisfied, Nama chemical groups %

of respondents, 20

Strongly satisfied

satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

33

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 13.5000 50.0000

Mode 15.00 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.31662 .00000

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 5.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 6.45497 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 10.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 2.64575 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

Respondents Total

34

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 13.0000 50.0000

Mode 6.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 5.50757 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

From the above-mentioned tables, it is to be notified that for Demon Group of Companies,

mean, median, mode and S.D are 12.5, 12.0, 6.0 and 5.97216 respectively. Regarding Reza

Company, mean, median, mode and S.D are 12.5, 13.5, 15.0 and 3.31662 specifically. In

Sadara chemical company, mean, median, mode and S.D of total presented respondents are

12.5, 12.5, 5.0 and 6.45497 respectively. In Fouz Company, 12.5, 12.0, 10.0 and 2.64575 are

respective mean, median, mode and S.D of total respondents as well. As per total respondents

of NAMA chemical groups, mean, median, mode and S.D are 12.5, 13.0, 6.0 and 5.50757

specifically.

Moreover, from the above-mentioned table and graph of every company’s satisfied

respondents, it is to be specified that in Delmon Group of companies, rate of strongly satisfied

respondents is maximum, neutral respondents are in second position, rate of satisfied

respondents are less than neutral, but more than dissatisfied respondents and dissatisfied are

the lowest in this company as well. In Reza Chemicals, rates of neutral and dissatisfied

respondents are in same position; rates of satisfied and strongly satisfied respondents are much

less than dissatisfied and neutral respondents as well. Sadara Chemical Company needs much

development and evaluation, as its dissatisfied respondents are greater than the other fields

including strongly satisfied, satisfied and neutral respondents. At the end of this discussion,

NAMA chemical group is involved as this company’s neutral respondents are in highest

position and satisfied and strongly satisfied respondents are the lowest ones than the other

respective companies as well.

2. Are you satisfied with the job-training programme?

35

Op

tio

ns

Delmon group

of companies

Reza

chemicals

Sadara

chemicals

Fouz

chemicals

NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Str

on

gly

sati

sfi

ed

12 50 24 18 50 36 22 50 44 18 50 36 10 50 20

Sat

isfi

ed

10 50 20 10 50 20 12 50 24 9 50 18 12 50 24

Ne

utr

al

15 50 30 8 50 16 10 50 20 15 50 30 18 50 36

Dis

sati

sfi

ed

13 50 26 14 50 28 6 50 12 8 50 16

10 50 20

36

Table 2: Satisfaction level of the job training programs

Figure 15: Satisfaction level of the job training programes

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 10.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 2.08167 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Strongly satisfied

satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

37

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 4.43471 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 6.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 6.80686 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 4.79583 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

38

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 10.00 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.78594 .00000

Job training and development is highly influential regarding organizational culture. In this

context, above mentioned table and graph shows the satisfactory levels of every respective

company’s respondents as well. Delmon Group of Companies’ respondents are not satisfied

much than other respective companies, as in the graph, level of neutral and dissatisfied

respondents are higher than the other two field.

Regarding Reza Company, it is to be specified that its level of strongly satisfied respondents

are similar with Fouz Chemical Company. However, its dissatisfied respondents are greater

than Fouz Chemical Company as well. In this regard, it is also to be mentioned that it is strongly

satisfied respondents are much stronger and higher than Delmon group of companies.

Sadara chemical company is highly significant as its level of strongly satisfied respondents is

in the highest position than the other companies. Therefore, it is highly proved that Sadara

Company is significant and adequate regarding its training and development as well. Moreover,

it must be highlighted that its level of dissatisfied respondents is in the lowest position than the

other respective companies reflectively.

3. Are you satisfied with the leadership of directors and managers in the companies?

Op

tio

ns

Delmon group

of companies

Reza

chemicals

Sadara

chemicals

Fouz

chemicals

NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

39

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

Str

on

gly

sati

sfi

ed

6 50 12 8 50 16 15

50 30 18 50 36 11 50 22

Sat

isfi

ed

16 50 32 14 50 28 10 50 20 17 50 34 13 50 26

Ne

utr

al

12 50 24 17 50 34 15 50 30 10 50 20 16 50 32

Dis

sati

sfi

ed

16 50 32 11 50 22 10 50 20 5 50 10 10 50 20

40

Table 3: Satisfaction level of the leadership of directors’ and managers in the company

Figure 16: Satisfaction level of the leadership of directors’ and managers in the

company

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 14.0000 50.0000

Mode 16.00 50.00

Std. Deviation 4.72582 .00000

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

41

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.87298 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 10.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 2.88675 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 13.5000 50.0000

Mode 5.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 6.13732 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

42

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 10.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 2.64575 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Respondents of five respective companies have been queried in order to find out which

company is the best regarding leadership of directors and managers significantly. However,

from the above-mentioned tables and graph, it has been signified that Fouz Chemical is in the

best position regarding leadership and management. This is because, in this context, Fouz

Chemical’s rate of strongly satisfied respondents is 36%. However, it is also proved that Fouz

chemical is highlighted and reflective regarding best leading and managing power, as its rate

of dissatisfied respondent is only 10%. Moreover, it is to be informed that this company’s

mean, median, mode and S.D are 12.5, 13.5, 5.0 and 6.13732 respectively.

On the other hand, it must be signified that Delmon Group of Companies is highly respective

and in poor condition regarding its leadership and management services. This is because,

according to the above-mentioned table and graphs, it is notified that its rate of dissatisfied

respondents is 32%. Other than this, it is to be informed that its rates of strongly satisfied and

satisfied respondents are 12% and 32% respectively.

According to the tables and graphs, other three respective companies are in middle position

regarding leading and managing employees and customers as well.

4. Do you agree that the organization supports professional development and career

growth?

O

pti

on

s

Delmon group

of companies

Reza chemicals Sadara

chemicals

Fouz chemicals NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

43

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

St

ro

ng

ly

A

gr

ee

20 50 40 14 50 28 12 50 24 18 50 36 21 50 42

A

gr

ee

14 50 28 12 50 24 18 50 36 14 50 28 16 50 32

N

eu

tra

l

8 50 16 16 50 32 10 50 20 11 50 22 8 50 16

Di

sa

gr

ee

8 50 16 8 50 16 10 50 20 7 50 14 5 50 10

44

Table 4: Organization supports professional development and career growth

Figure 17: Organization supports professional development and career growth

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 8.00 50.00

Std. Deviation 5.74456 .00000

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 13.0000 50.0000

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

45

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.41565 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 10.00 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.78594 .00000

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 7.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 4.65475 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

46

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 5.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 7.32575 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Organizations and companies highly support professional development and career growth.

However, regarding the specified companies, it must be signified that NAMA chemical group

is highly influential as it has the highest rate of strongly agreed respondents as well. This

company has 42% of strongly agreed respondents within the management. On the other hand,

disagreed respondents of this company are only 10% as well. Therefore, it is highlighted that

this respective company has agreed that organizations support professional development and

career growth adequately and forcibly.

As per the tables and graphs, it must be involved that Sadara chemical group does not agree

much that organization supports professional development and career growth. This has been

proved as the table shows that this company has 20% of disagreed respondents, while the other

respective companies have lower percentage of disagreed respondents accordingly. Moreover,

it should be involved that this company has only 24% of strongly agreed respondents, whereas

the other companies have much higher percentage of respondents in this field.

5. Are you satisfied with the conflict resolution mechanism implemented in your

company?

Op

tio

ns

Delmon group

of companies

Reza

chemicals

Sadara

chemicals

Fouz

chemicals

NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

%

of

res

po

nd

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

%

of

res

po

nd

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

%

of

res

po

nd

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

%

of

res

po

nd

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

Tot

al

res

po

nd

%

of

res

po

nd

47

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

ent

s

Str

on

gly

sati

sfi

ed

16 50 32 9 50 18

7 50 14 9 50 18 6 50 12

Sat

isfi

ed

22 50 44 11 50 22 10 50 20 13 50 26 11 50 22

Ne

utr

al

10 50 20 16 50 32 12 50 24 17 50 34 14 50 28

Dis

sati

sfi

ed

2 50 4 14 50 28 21 50 42 11 50 22 19 50 38

48

Table 5: Conflict resolution mechanism implemented in your company

Figure 18: Conflict resolution mechanism implemented in your company

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 13.0000 50.0000

Mode 2.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 8.54400 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

49

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 9.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.10913 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 7.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 6.02771 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 9.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.41565 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

50

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 6.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 5.44671 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Regarding the satisfaction of conflict resolution mechanism, it is to be specified that Delmon

Group of companies is in the highest position. This information has been collected from the

above-mentioned tables and graph as well. According to the table, Delmon group of

companies’ rate of strongly satisfied respondent is 32%, whereas Reza chemicals and Fouz

Chemicals are in same position. Reza chemicals and Fouz chemicals have 18% of strongly

satisfied respondents. Moreover, it is to be observed that Delmon Company has only 4% of

dissatisfied respondent regarding this conflict as well.

Sadara chemicals have most dissatisfied respondents in this context. This company has 42% of

dissatisfied respondents, whereas its strongly satisfied respondents are 14%. But, Nama

chemicals is in the last position regarding this conflict, as it has only 12% of strongly satisfied

respondents. Mean, median, mode and S.D of Nama chemicals is 12.5, 12.5, 6.0 and 5.44671

respectively.

6. Do you agree that the Code of Ethics in your organization is appropriately designed

and implemented?

O

pti

on

s

Delmon group

of companies

Reza chemicals Sadara

chemicals

Fouz chemicals NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

Nu

mb

er

Tot

al

res

%

of

res

51

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

po

nd

ent

s

St

ro

ng

ly

A

gr

ee

9 50 18 12 50 24 18

50 36 10 50 20 8 50 16

A

gr

ee

12 50 24 8 50 16 26 50 52 13 50 26 9 50 18

N

eu

tra

l

19 50 38 16 50 32 5 50 10 15 50 30 20 50 40

Di

sa

gr

ee

10 50 20 14 50 28 1 50 2 12 50 24 13 50 26

52

Table 6: Code of Ethics in organization is appropriately designed and implemented

Figure 19: Code of Ethics in organization is appropriately designed and implemented

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 9.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 4.50925 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 13.0000 50.0000

Strongly Agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

53

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.41565 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.5000 50.0000

Mode 1.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 11.56143 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 10.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 2.08167 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

54

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 5.44671 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

According to the researched and analyzed tables and graph, it has been signified that Sadara

Chemicals is influential regarding its rate of strongly agreed respondents. 36% respondents

have agreed strongly that the Code of Ethics is appropriately designed and implemented.

Moreover, it is to be informed that only 2% respondents have disagreed the fact in this context.

Therefore, it is to be specified that 52% respondents have agreed the fact and 10% respondents

are in confusion.

Reza chemicals is in second position regarding the field of strongly agreed respondents. This

company has 24%respondents, who have agreed strongly that Code of Ethics have significant

reflection upon respective companies as well.

However, Nama chemicals has highest percentage of disagreed respondents. This company has

26% respondents, who have disagreed the fact highly. On the other hand, this company has

only 16% respondents, who have agreed the fact strongly. However, Sadara chemical is again

reflective regarding its agreed respondents, as it has 52% of agreed respondents influentially.

Moreover, it is to be specified that Nama chemical group has most respondents among other

companies, who are confused to provide their comments in this regard.

7. Are you satisfied with the motivational strategies and reward system adopted by the

company?

Op

tio

ns

Delmon group

of companies

Reza

chemicals

Sadara

chemicals

Fouz

chemicals

NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

55

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

Str

on

gly

sati

sfi

ed

12 50 24

4 50 8 14 50 28

9 50 18 7 50 14

Sat

isfi

ed

18 50 36 8 50 16 17 50 34 19 50 38 15 50 30

Ne

utr

al

10 50 20 26 50 52 10 50 20 12 50 24 19 50 38

Dis

sati

sfi

ed

10 50 20 12 50 24 9 50 18 10 50 20 9 50 18

56

Table 7: Satisfaction level on the motivational strategies and reward system adopted by

the company

Table 20: Satisfaction level on the motivational strategies and reward system adopted

by the company

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 10.00 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.78594 .00000

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

57

Median 10.0000 50.0000

Mode 4.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 9.57427 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 9.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.69685 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 9.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 4.50925 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

58

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.0000 50.0000

Mode 7.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 5.50757 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Motivational strategies and rewarding system is influential and essential for every respective

business company. It is to be defined that Sadara Chemicals is again notified and signified

regarding its percentage of strongly satisfied respondents in this context. It has 28% of

respondents who are strongly satisfied with motivational strategies and planning along with

rewarding system. On the other hand, the percentage of the respondents who are not satisfied

in this context is 18% respectively. NAMA chemicals also has same percentage of respondents

regarding dissatisfaction.

Reza chemicals is in the last position regarding the field of strongly satisfied respondents. The

percentage of strongly satisfied respondents is this company is 18%. However, dissatisfied

respondents are of 24% in this respective company as well. It is also to be mentioned that

among all the companies, this Reza Company is also in the highest position regarding neutral

respondents as well.

Therefore, it is to be evaluated that the companies, which have poor motivational strategies,

need to develop and modify their strategic implementation of motivation significantly.

8. Are you satisfied with the communication and feedback mechanism implemented

within the company?

Op

tio

ns

Delmon group

of companies

Reza

chemicals

Sadara

chemicals

Fouz

chemicals

NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

Nu

mb

er

of

Tot

al

res

po

%

of

res

po

59

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

res

po

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

nd

ent

s

Str

on

gly

sati

sfi

ed

14 50 28 12 50 24

11 50 22

6 50 12 9 50 18

Sat

isfi

ed

20 50 40 16 50 32 17 50 34 8 50 16 13 50 26

Ne

utr

al

12 50 24 14 50 28 10 50 20 19 50 38 16 50 32

Dis

sati

sfi

ed

4 50 8 8 50 16 12 50 24 17 50 34 12 50 24

60

Table 8: Communication and feedback mechanism implemented within the company

Figure 21: Communication and feedback mechanism implemented within the company

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 13.0000 50.0000

Mode 4.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 6.60808 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

61

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 13.0000 50.0000

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.41565 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 11.5000 50.0000

Mode 10.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.10913 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 6.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 6.45497 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

NAMA chemical groups

62

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 4 4

Missing 0 0

Mean 12.5000 50.0000

Median 12.5000 50.0000

Mode 9.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 2.88675 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

28% respondents of Delmon Group of Companies are highly satisfied with the communication

and feedback mechanism implemented within their company. This company’s respondents are

huge in this field among other respective companies significantly. Fouz chemicals’ respondents

are too low in this field of strongly satisfied as well. Only 12% respondents are strongly

satisfied regarding the communication and feedback mechanism of Fouz Chemicals as well.

On the other hand, it is to be notified that only 8% respondents are totally dissatisfied in this

respect of communication and feedback mechanism in Delmon Group of companies. It is to be

specified that Delmon Group of Companies are als reflective in satisfied field regarding this

context of communication. Moreover, it is to be highlighted that 40% respondents are satisfied

with effective communication skills and feedback mechanism as well.

Except Fouz chemicals and Delmon Group of companies, the other three respective companies

are not so reflective and adequate regarding their communication and feedback mechanism

context. It is to be observed from the above graph and table that 22% respondents of Reza

chemicals, 24% of Sadara chemicals, and 18% of Nama chemicals are strongly satisfied with

their communication and feedback mechanism significantly. It is to be mentioned that these

three respective companies are not so influential and reflective than the other two companies

mentioned above.

9. Which is the most important factor influencing organizational culture in your

company?

63

Op

tio

ns

Delmon group

of companies

Reza

chemicals

Sadara

chemicals

Fouz

chemicals

NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Un

ity

11 50 22 10 50 20 13 50 26 6 50 12 16 50 32

Lo

yal

ty

9 50 18 11 50 22 11 50 22 6 50 12 11 50 22

Co

mp

etit

ion

9 50 18 11 50 22 9 50 18 11 50 22 9 50 18

Dir

ecti

on

9 50 18 10 50 20 10 50 20 13 50 26 8 50 16

Ide

ntit

y

12 50 24 8 50 16 7 50 14 14 50 28 6 50 12

64

Table 9: Most important factor influencing organizational culture in company

Figure 22: Most important factor influencing organizational culture in company

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 9.0000 50.0000

Mode 9.00 50.00

Std. Deviation . 10.0 .00000

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 10.0000 50.0000

Mode 10.00a 50.00

Unity, Delmon group of companies % of respondents,

22

Unity, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 20

Unity, Sadara chemicals % of

respondents, 26

Unity, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 12

Unity, Nama chemical groups % of respondents, 32

Loyalty, Delmon group of companies % of respondents,

18

Competition, Delmon group of companies % of respondents, 18

Competition, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 22 Competition, Sadara chemicals % of respondents, 18

Competition, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 22 Competition, Nama chemical groups % of respondents, 18

Direction, Delmon group of companies % of respondents,

18

Direction, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 20

Direction, Sadara chemicals % of

respondents, 20

Direction, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 26

Direction, Nama chemical groups % of respondents, 16

Identity, Delmon group of companies % of respondents,

24

Identity, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 16

Identity, Sadara chemicals % of

respondents, 14

Identity, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 28

Identity, Nama chemical groups % of respondents, 12

Unity

Loyalty

Competition

Direction

Identity

65

Std. Deviation 1.22474 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 10.0000 50.0000

Mode 7.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 2.23607 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 11.0000 50.0000

Mode 6.00 50.00

Std. Deviation .00000

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

66

Median 9.0000 50.0000

Mode 6.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 3.80789 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

According to the report that is conducted on according to the people the most important element

of the organisations to influence a good culture, it is clearly observed that the mean, median,

mode and S.D of Delmon group are 10.0, 9.0, 9.0 and 1.41421. The mean, median, mode and

S.D of Raza chemicals are 10.0, 10.0, 10.0 and 1.22474. In addition, the mean, median, mode

and S.D of Sadara Chemicals are 10.0, 10.0, 7.0 and 2.23607 and in the scenario of Foux

Chemicals the mean, median, mode and S.D are 10.0, 11.0, 6.00, 3.80789. In the NAMA

chemical groups, the the mean, median, mode and S.D are 10.0, 9.0, 6.0, 3.80789.

Thus, analysing the statistics of the respondents the 32% of people from NAMA chemical

groups replied that they believe that unity is the main factor in building up the organisational

culture. This is the highest percentage of people those gave their view regarding the unity, from

Forza chemicals it’s only 12% of people, from Sadara chemicals the percentage raised a little

bit higher that is 26% and this is the second highest respondents. On the other hand from Reza

chemicals and Delmon group of companies, the percentage was 20% and 22% respectively.

There were many others factors too like loyalty, competition, direction and identity, still,

among them; competition received almost the lowest response from the people. The people

from Delmon group of companies only 18% responded to this element, from Reza chemicals

only 22% said that competition matters to make a good organisational culture. Besides, from

Sadara chemicals only 18% people are agreed on this view. 22% from Four chemicals

responded in it and finally from NAMA chemical groups 18% people responded to this

element.

Thus, from the table analysis, it is clear that the factors in which the survey was taken that are

unity, loyalty, competition, direction and identity all the respondents are were given their

separate views thus the percentage ratio of all the parameters got mixed response.

10. Which factors of organizational culture should be given more importance to

enhance performance of the company?

67

Op

tio

ns

Delmon group

of companies

Reza

chemicals

Sadara

chemicals

Fouz

chemicals

NAMA

chemical

groups

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Nu

mb

er

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Tot

al

res

po

nd

ent

s

%

of

res

po

nd

ent

s

Un

ity

12 50 24 14 50 28 10 50 20 10 50 20 9 50 18

Lo

yal

ty

10 50 20 11 50 22 11 50 22 9 50 18 10 50 20

Co

mp

etit

ion

9 50 18 8 50 16 9 50 18 7 50 14 8 50 16

Dir

ecti

on

8 50 16 9 50 18 12 50 24 12 50 24 10 50 20

Ide

ntit

y

11 50 22 8 50 16 8

50 16 12 50 24 13 50 26

68

Table 10: Factors of organizational culture to be given more importance

Figure 23: Factors of organizational culture to be given more importance

Delmon group of companies

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 10.0000 50.0000

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 1.58114 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Reza chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 9.0000 50.0000

Unity, Delmon group of companies % of respondents,

24

Unity, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 28 Unity, Sadara

chemicals % of respondents, 20

Unity, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 20 Unity, Nama

chemical groups % of respondents, 18

Loyalty, Delmon group of companies % of respondents,

20

Loyalty, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 22

Loyalty, Sadara chemicals % of

respondents, 22 Loyalty, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 18

Loyalty, Nama chemical groups % of respondents, 20

Competition, Delmon group of companies % of respondents, 18

Competition, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 16

Competition, Sadara chemicals % of respondents, 18 Competition, Fouz

chemicals % of respondents, 14

Competition, Nama chemical groups % of respondents, 16

Direction, Delmon group of companies % of respondents,

16

Direction, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 18

Direction, Sadara chemicals % of

respondents, 24

Direction, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 24 Direction, Nama chemical groups % of respondents, 20

Identity, Delmon group of companies % of respondents,

22

Identity, Reza chemicals % of

respondents, 16

Identity, Sadara chemicals % of

respondents, 16

Identity, Fouz chemicals % of

respondents, 24

Identity, Nama chemical groups % of respondents, 26

Unity

Loyalty

Competition

Direction

Identity

69

Mode 8.00 50.00

Std. Deviation 2.54951 .00000

Sadara chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 10.0000 50.0000

Mode 8.00a 50.00

Std. Deviation 1.58114 .00000

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest

value is shown

Fouz chemicals

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 10.0000 50.0000

Mode 12.00 50.00

Std. Deviation . .00000

NAMA chemical groups

Statistics

Respondents Total

N Valid 5 5

Missing 0 0

Mean 10.0000 50.0000

Median 10.0000 50.0000

70

Mode 10.00 50.00

Std. Deviation 1.87083 .00000

This survey report had been done to recognise the factors in choosing the factors of an

institutional culture that would give more importance to raise the performance of the company.

In this matter, a very effective response had been received. Almost five major elements were

there, those are unity, loyalty, competition, direction and identity. In this matter, if the element

of unity is concerned it can be evaluated that from Delmon group of companies 24%

respondents said they believe in unity, from Reza chemicals the number of agreed people were

28%, from Sadara chemicals the percentage of respondents were 20%. Out of 50 people in

Fouz chemicals, 20% agreed with the viewpoint and in NAMA chemical groups is was 18%

of people out of 50%.

On the other hand, if the Delmon group of companies’ mean, median, mode and S.D are

observed then it is clear that they are 10.0, 10.0, 8.0 and 1.58114. The same mean, median,

mode and S.D in the scenario of Reza chemicals are 10.0, 9.0,8.0 and 2.54951. If the statistics

of Sadara chemicals is observed then the mean, median, mode and S.D are 10.0, 10.0, 8.0 and

1.58114. The mean, median, mode and S.D of Four chemicals are 10.0, 10.0, 12.0 and 2.12132

and lastly, NAMA chemicals’ mean, median, mode and S.D are 10.0, 10.0, 10.0 and 1.87083.

Thus, from the findings it is clear that apart from unity there are other elements too that are

direction, identity, direction, competition and loyalty. In all those parameters respondents from

five of the companies gave mixed responses, for the reason it can be evaluated that all the five

parameters are equally important to include in the organisational culture to enhance the

performance of the organisation.

Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

As discussed earlier, many factors are there to improve and make an effective organisational

identity, organisational identities are crucial because in the business market judging by this

factor the scope of market improves. Therefore, the organisation identity would improve if the

organisation improves their culture in the institution. The five different companies all belong

from the chemical industry and for the reason, the culture in their case impact very much

influencing their productivity, management or building customer relationship. In this scenario,

it can be evaluated that maintaining the culture in these organisations might not be easy, as

they needed to go through various steps to complete a single objective in a limited amount of

71

time. Moreover, a huge number of employees work there. Thus, establishing an organisational

culture means the companies need to manage all the staffs and create an environment that

fruitful for all the stakeholders and only then a good culture can be established.

Thus, making it effective in the organisations, in this study different research processes has

been conducted to know the most important parameters that are needed to make the culture

better. Through the methods, it has been evaluated that the chemical organisations until now

introduced many rules and regulations to improve the culture. However not all are effective,

some policies are accepted by the people and some are not. In addition, different elements are

brought to recognise the additional things that might help to improve the culture and in that

scenario, a mixed response from the participant had been received. Thus, coming to an overall

viewpoint in this matter a set of recommendation has been made in this chapter.

5.2 Linking with the objectives

After analysing the entire data collection method, in this section, the researchers had tried to

recognise the link between the research objectives and its application. These entire procedures

would help to judge the authenticity of the topic.

Linking objective 1: To understand the roles or purpose of organisational culture in every

specified company

Assessing from the research studies it can be evaluated that the importance of organisational

culture is very important for all the five specified organisations that are Delmon group of

companies, Reza chemicals, Sadara chemicals, Fouz chemicals and NAMA chemical groups.

After judging the surveys of the respondents it is clear that the employees of the institution also

want it, as they recognised that the organisational culture would not only work for the

institution’s benefits, however, it would also benefit the stakeholders. Thus, the companies need

to stress on these matters. The entire theory is clearly described in the literature review in the ‘

effectiveness and adequacy of the organisational culture’, where the study has been evaluated

that the cultural organisation highly motivate the employees in the workplace and make them

be more productive, besides it assists to put value in them so that they would be able to grow

individually.

In addition to the literature review in model and theories of organisational culture, it was proved

that various theorists produced different models to improve the culture to manifolds. The

models from Edgar Schein to sanctuary model evaluates the roles and responsibilities of

making a healthy culture in the institution and it clearly assessed that much high corporate

72

organisation established themselves through the application of these models. Thus, the purpose

of the objective is established in this section.

Linking objective 2: To evaluate strategic movement and planning of organisational

culture in every company

The objective is based on the strategic movement and planning session that are needed to

maintain the organisational culture. Thus, in this scenario it can be stated that a number of

initiatives that could have been taken to improve the culture that is concentrating on the

changing behaviour, maintaining current situation to focusing on only the reflective behaviour

and maintaining all these structures the necessary elements are discussed in the organisational

structure. These matters are evaluated in the literature review, where a good analysis had been

made regarding strong and weak organisational culture.

In this point, the strategic movement and different planning system has been assessed, where

the study clearly stated that if the chemical companies take a good responsibility in maintaining

organisational culture then they would able to fulfil their objectives easily. Doing this

effectively the institution needed to apply a planning process like defining the legacy, where

the companies need to maintain employee retention and give them a good remuneration to

understand their responsibility. In addition, recruiting smartly the five chemical organisations

would be able to bring the talented people in the company and as a result, the culture would

automatically flourish. Besides, engaging influencing employees would help them to make a

decent behavioural pattern and attitude among all the other employees. Side by side the

literature review also described that the five companies needed to get ready for the changes

that mean any time in the matter of any discrimination happens them they need to be prepared

to bring and accept the changes. Thus, this objective met with the literature review.

Linking objective 3: To define change management and its impact upon organisational

culture

The entire objective is the procedure in which the change management and its effect in the

organisational culture is defined. In this matter, it can be said that the entire objective is defined

in the literature review of this study, where it evaluated that the companies need to be more

specific about the cultural and promotional strategies. In addition, employee motivation and

working environment are also necessary for this matter. Thus, the discussed five organisations

here needed to take care in this matter. In the literature review, the matter is clearly described.

In the point ‘organisational culture and its impact’, it was stressed that both the style and culture

are evident in an organisation, as it plays a major role in improving and motivating the staffs

to gain productivity. In this matter, it is clearly evaluated that the cooperation from the

73

employees to management sectors are very necessary to achieve the objective. In addition, the

result for the effective use of culture gives is explained here neatly, as before applying the

process the chemical institutions need to know the reason behind applying the policies, so that,

the impact would be more effective and positive. Thus, it can be said that the objective met

with the literature review.

Linking objective 4: To clarify and notify relationship between organisational culture and

business performance

This objective revolves around the clarification and notification between the company’s culture

and business performance. This study has been evaluated in the quantitative research method.

Where the data has been taken to justify the certain standards that needed to be taken to clear

about the steps of linking the relationship between the two sectors. However, in the literature

review, the matter has been discussed more elaborately, where it had been clearly stated the

influence of institutional culture to improve the business.

In this matter with the valuable points, it had been justified that if the culture of the organisation

is improved then it also instigates the performance of the employees. The working activities

seemed to be changed in a positive way. In addition, it also stressed the importance of

maintaining the organisational culture properly. In the scenario of five companies like Delmon

group of companies, Reza chemicals, Sadara chemicals, Fouz chemicals and NAMA chemical

groups they all belong to the chemical industry and if the maintain the sustainability in the

business culture then the result would assist them to increase the valuation of the company.

However, in the point, it is also stated that at the time of improving the business performance

their main objective and quality of service need not be lost or decreased along the way. Thus,

the objective is able to fulfil all requirements of a literature review.

5.3 Recommendation

In the analysis, it has been clear that each of the companies is taking their initiatives to improve

their organisational culture. However, in many scenarios, they are lacking some basic data to

apply it to the institution, in this section; some recommendations are provided to the companies

to improve their overall structure.

Articulating the entire vision and mission

In the scenario of Delmon group of companies and Sadara chemicals, it is clear that though

they are planning to apply all the policies to make their organisational culture better still they

are lacking the fundamental elements that are to determine their overall; vision and mission as

74

a chemical company. If the main objectives were clear for these two organisations then for

them it would not be an issue to create a good culture in their workplace,

Analysing the tools that would motivate all the stakeholders

In this matter, the two organisations are Reza chemicals and NAMA chemical groups, where

they need to think of the different tools and techniques so that the stakeholders stay motivated

at the time of working. The tools might be a reward facility, where the employees would be

able to get a reward as per their performances or the company might give them some incentives

or promotion.

Designing a good team

The companies like NAMA chemical groups and Fouz chemicals needed to be more serious in

making a good team that would be able to not only maintain the organisational culture,

however, motivate the entire work culture. Thus, maintaining all these both the organisation

needs to recruit good team members and this can be done by allocating a good management

system in the institution.

Scope for creativity

An organisation flourish only in that time when the stakeholders are given an opportunity to

do something more than is required in a creative way. Thus, organisations like Reza chemicals

and Delmon group of companies need to focus on that. It would give their employees an

opportunity to produce their skills and if this kind of flexibility were maintained then

employees of this organisation would get a chance to open up, this is very essential to make a

good organisational culture.

5.4 Limitation of research

At the time of making research some major and minor issue were encountered by the

researchers, those issues made some limitation in the overall research work, some are discussed

below.

● The senior executives of these chemical organisation were very busy in their tight

schedule so that in spite of many tries they were unable to provide an adequate amount

of time to the researchers, for the reason many questions are there that were made by

the researchers were not asked in their interviews. This incident created difficulties in

coming to the accurate conclusion

● The researchers have conducted this study to all the main branches of these five

chemical companies. However, it was not possible for them to go to all the branches

they have, as for it they required some additional amount of budget and time. Thus, in

75

this case, all the research studies had been made of the limited amount of information

they got.

● The limitation in the research work also happened for the insufficient amount of budget

researchers have. The budget was limited for research work and for the reason having

many sources to study; they were unable to meet those. If they had more budgets then

the research work would be more advanced.

● Many respondents were there those were unable to give their point of view to the

questions the researchers have asked. In data analysis, section many questions are there

that remained unanswered or researchers got a neutral answer on that. Thus, it became

difficult to the researchers to come to a proper conclusion.

● Another research limitation is that all researchers have been witnessed an inadequate

amount of time. The time that is given to the researchers was very limited and at that

time, it was almost impossible for the researchers to ensure an accuracy of the research

work they are getting.

5.5 Future scope of study

As previously discussed many research limitations are there in the entire research and for this

reason, there is many scopes to make a future study regarding this matter. In research

limitation, it was clear that the result that has been made is not 100% accurate and many reasons

are there behind it. Firstly, researchers had not gotten adequate time to do research in a broader

perspective. In addition, inappropriate budget made them research maintaining only some basic

criteria, if in future with an adequate amount of budget same research has been conducting then

the result would have been more correct.

On the other hand, managers of the five companies had not been involved in research process

accurately so that if in future work this matter is maintained properly then a correct source of

information could have been received, in a matter each manager’s time need be allocated

separately. Besides, this research has been conducted within a limited geographical structure,

thus, there would be a lot of scope in the future if a geographical scenario has been expanded.

Thus, these are the flaws in previous research and if it is maintained, in future research policies

then the quality would be more improved and research would be more accurate.

5.6 Summary

This section of the research consists of a critical analysis part from the results that has been

gotten from researchers and it is correctly linked with the analysis that has been previously

done in literature review section. In addition, more than one recommendation has been made

76

to improve the procedure so that necessary changes can be made in making organisational

culture better. In addition, a future scope of study has been evaluated to understand what could

be done to produce a better research study.

77

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