Public health assessment (unit 2 paper)

Public health assessment (unit 2 paper)

The health of the public has become a great concern. Public health deals with the health or a group of people or organization. The purpose of this paper is to differentiate between public and personal health. The paper will also discuss the benefits and disadvantages of public health assessments. Further, the paper will also discuss the role of public health advocates in solving health conflicts in the society. It will also identify a health concern and the legislation which has been put in place to address the concern. The paper wills also explain how public health assessment is used to perform public policies.

Community health is a major field within the clinical and medical sciences which is associated with the protection, improvement, and maintenance of the health status of communities and population groups. It could also be defined as the art and science of prolonging life, preventing disease and promoting human health through efforts and good choices of organizations, society, private and public, individuals and communities. Community health differs from personal health in that it deals with a large group of people or a population while personal health focuses on the health of one single person. Personal health includes personal health records whereby the records or a patient are maintained since the time of treatment. It means that personal health is individualized for every person. In personal health, every person is free to make their own choices in relation to exercise, smoking, diet, and health and family matters.

A public health assessment is a report which evaluates a harmful waste site for hazardous substances, community concerns, and health outcomes. A PHA evaluates if people could be affected if they come into contact with site-related substances. PHA has various benefits, to start with is that the report contains community concern, health data, and environmental data in one place. The advantage makes it easy for the policymakers to assess the potential health effects of the policy before they formulate it. The public health assessment also provides a recommendation for minimizing the adverse effects of health while on the other hand maximizing the positive health effects (Hugh H. Tilson, 1988). It also provides information about the levels of concentration of the hazardous substances. It also indicates whether people are exposed to contamination and the ways which could expose them to contamination. It also indicates to what levels the toxic substances are likely to affect people.

One of the disadvantages of public health assessment is that it only focuses a single level of the performance. It means that it only focuses on the ceiling effect. Another disadvantage is the potential misuse of information. An example of a potential conflict within the community which would arise as a result of public health assessments is the issue of homelessness. Whereby the assessment indicates that the people diagnosed with serious mental illness will be given the best housing facility. it is an issue which could bring conflict among various members of the society whereby some will want to understand under what circumstances such a decision was made. It is, however, the role of policymakers and public health advocates to manage or prevent such conflicts. Policymakers should come up with a solution which will make health a reality for everyone. The public health advocates should also make such a neighborhood be a place that nurtures the well-being of everyone (Registr, 2013).

The public health assessment is used to form public policy. It is achieved by educating and encouraging the public to get involved with the public health policies which support environmental health. Through public health assessment, it is also possible to formulate policies which promote the health of the public. It happens whereby policies are set to minimize the negative consequence of a certain health issue and to focus on policies which maximize on the positive consequences. Public health assessments provide information form concerned citizens and providers which could be used to formulate policies (Crouch & Meurier, 2015).PHA also helps to identify health needs which are required during the formulation of policies. Generally, the policy development process includes collaboration, making decisions about problems, the choice of goals and steps to meet decisions made about problems and conflict negotiation and resolution.

There are various health concerns which have often affected the nation until legislations have been passed to address the concern. In this case, the health concern under consideration is that one of smoking in public places. Most of the states prohibit smoking in public places. On 8TH November 2005, a law which prohibits smoking in all bars and restaurants was passed in Washington. It happened after the 1985 clean indoor Air Act was amended. The definition of a public place included restaurants, bars, skating rinks, bowling centers and non-tribal casinos. It also included the private residences which are used to provide foster care, childcare, adult care or similar social services. Nearly three-quarter of sleeping quarters within a hostel is also considered as public places. The law on smoking in public places also prohibits smoking twenty-five feet of exits, open windows, entrances and ventilation intakes which serve enclosed areas in which smoking is also prohibited (Registry., 2016).

Public health assessments are crucial in the formulation of policy. Other than assurance, policy formulation is a role in public health assessments. From the discussion, it is also clear that the law set to prevent public place smoking has helped to prevent some problems brought about by tobacco smoking such as lung diseases and the destruction of the environment.


Crouch, A. T., & Meurier, C. (2015). Health assessment. Oxford; Malden, Mass: Blackwell Pub.

Hugh H. Tilson. (1988). Benefits of a Community. Notes from the field, 850-851. Retrieved from, 13th June, 2018.

Registr, U. S. (2013). Public health assessment. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers,

Registry., U. S. (2016). Public health assessments. Atlanta, GA: ATSDR,

Unit 4 assignment

Total Health Assessment

Social psychology is a field that deals with the study of how people feels, thinks, and behaves due to external factors and also in the presence of other people. Different approaches used to study the behaviors and changes in the human life. According to Merritt et al., (2010), social psychology determines a lot of factors in the human race. An example is the moral behaviors and character that one generates as he or she grows. Therefore, they govern how we stay with the rest in the society.

Wilhelm Wundt is a great proponent of social psychology born in 1832. He was a German who managed to generate a lot of ideas in the society. He started the journey in the field of medicine. He contributed to the study of human sensory experience where he analyzed a lot of activities in his laboratory. Human being responds to different stimuli and it is used up to date to treat patients with sensory problems. He achieved in this field to the greatest heights.

Jean Piaget is another proponent born in 1896 in Switzerland. His father was a professor in the University of Neuchatel where Piaget was born. As a result, he developed an interest in natural world and biology and committed himself to write articles before graduating from the high school. From the craving for more knowledge and discovery, he developed the theory of cognitive process. It explains the stages one passes through as they grow and hence acquire different skills as one grows old. The theory is widely used in institutions to help with explaining some of the actions learners do.

A theory is a logical reasoning that explains given assumptions to give a more complex and understandable idea. A theory gives an insight into the human behavior and helps in making predictions about the actions likely to happen (What is a Theory? n.d). In health, assessment is very easy to analyze the character of a given individual and explain using different theories like cognitive theory. When it comes to decision making regarding the health issues, it is appropriate since they use the available theories which are proven. For instance, psychological theories explain the results of given reactions where every action has an effect (Bandura, 2010).

Empirical data is the information collected over a given period of time through the scientific process. It involves experimentation and observation and hence a very important process in the scientific process. During health assessment, planning and policies, a specific idea is generated and expounded into details. Using the empirical data, it is possible to analyze the ideas and draw an affirmative conclusion based on the previous data collected.

Census Information

In Tarrant County, Texas, the most common are the whites with 962,732 followed by Hispanic at 573,205 and finally Black with 313,468 (Tarrant County, TX, n.d). Texas is among the population with the largest number of individual with disabilities. From a 2014 census report, the number ranged in 3,422,764 which amounts to 12.9% of the total population. Texas has more than 1 million children which makes a ratio of 1:10 children living in the United States. 5% are the Hispanic and Latino, 11% Black, 33% White, and 6% represent the Asian, multicultural and other race. In 2014, there was a total of 237,747,169 adults in Texas. An adult is anyone who is over 18 years old and hence have different duties to play in the development of the county.

Children are the most venerable to the changing situations and end up in drug abuse in the county. For instance, smoking is the most prone behavior that children engage in and hence the need for immediate attention from the policies and the authorities. The CDC reports in 2017 that youths who smoke the cigarette at the age of 9-12 years are 17.4%. Also, 16.0% of the youths were also smokers a very high percentage that leads to ranking position 16th among the 26 states where children are smoking (State Highlight, n.d). The children also smoke in public putting other citizens at a risk of health complications. Therefore, Texas has health concerns when it comes to children smoking.

Health Risk Assessment

Alcohol is the most abused drug since it is considered mild and for leisure purposes. It is difficult to get over it despite the constant urge, wherever people comment about my drinking behavior, I feel irritated and angered. However, the whole process is accompanied by guilt wherever I get drunk and sober up but I manage to avoid morning drinks to treat the hangover.

From the questions, it is evident that I have a drinking problem. Alcohol is associated with some technical terms like alcohol disorder. It means that an individual drink too much knowingly. It leads to alcoholism which is even more challenging to cease. It is a medical disorder. To overcome the problem, it is advisable to ask for help from different health centers and ask for help from the family members. The recovery process involves steps that one is committed to; following the healthcare provider advise and also undergoing alcohol treatment. They are crucial steps that act as a stepping stone to quitting the behavior. In addition to that, the family members and the spouse play a role in guiding when helping to follow the right track. One gains self-esteem and self-confident and finally get the urge to get over it.


Bandura, A. (2010). Modeling. The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. doi:10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0554

Merritt, M. W., Doris, J. M., & Harman, G. (2010). Character. The Moral Psychology Handbook, 355-401. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199582143.003.0012

State Highlights. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Tarrant County, TX. (n.d.). Retrieved from

What is Theory? (n.d.). Retrieved from

Unit 6 Assignment

Adult smoking

Question 1

About the health assessment concerning adult smoking, majority ty of adults are smoking, 15.6 percent of adults are regarded to be currently smoking cigarettes. Furthermore, three out of four adult smokers in Los Angeles is in the process of trying to quit smoking. This is because individuals are assisting them from outside encouraging them to quit smoking. It has led to a decrease in use in smoking among individuals (Health assessment report, 2003). Most of the locals have gained support from the locals and statewide to minimize on tobacco use. On the other hand, stricter rules and regulations governing the sale of tobacco is also regarded to have contributed towards the decline or reduced smoking. Accordingly, the increased price of tobacco in Los Angeles has been increased by $1.20 per every packet, making it difficult for most youths to purchase cigarettes (Health assessment report, 2003). On the other hand, it can also be assumed that smoking among young people has reduced due to the introduction of an initiative such as campaign with the key them of discouraging young individuals to quit. The gradual decrease in some smoker in the country can be interlinked with many funded efforts that have been put by different stakeholders (Health assessment report, 2003). One of the significant efforts is introducing a statewide media campaign with an emphasis on the effects of smoking on individual’s health. This is an indication that culturally relevant methods are appropriate and most preferred targets towards reducing smoking (Easterling et al., 2010). The statewide campaign also improves awareness among the smokers, as well as educating them on some repercussion of smoking on their health.

Question 2

Some of the information such as the key reason why most people smoke is crucial towards planning for interventions in the community, the majority of young and old people smoke as a result of peer pressure. For an individual to fit into a given group that is also regarded to be smoking, they are required to smoke. This has led to the high number of youth resorting to cigarette smoking. Resulting in habit formation, in which they prefer to spend their money on smoking and also engaging others to join them. Important information is about the number of individuals smoking in the country. As per the report, an estimation of 1,066,000 adults is considered to be smoking. However, the outcome indicates that the number has been decreasing as a result of various initiatives in place to eradicate tobacco smoking. Undertaking the number and the gender of people smoking is crucial towards executing an effective intervention to the general community. Accordingly, information about gender will offer a more valuable way on how it can be eradicated among youths and adults. Level of poverty among Los Angeles people should also be considered before planning for the intervention. Since it will provide and give an outline on some of the initiatives that can be taken to improve on the status of people. Also, the poverty level has reduced from 19.5 percent to 18.5 percent an indication that the living standards of people have improved with time. Also, the reduced poverty level can be interlinked to the reduced number of smokers within the country.

Question 3

Public policy is regarded to be systems of courses of actions, laws as well as funding to ensure given initiative is conducted effectively. Therefore, it necessary to consider information that can be used in public policy planning. Such information includes various actions that have been taken to ensure healthcare issues are handled effectively. For instance, a campaign that focuses on discouraging individuals from smoking is important since it will provide more information on the number of individuals that have been impacted by the initiative (Buchanan, 2014). Furthermore, it is also crucial since it provides an outline on what is to be done about measures put forth towards minimizing smoking or health-related aspect in the country. The number of death that has occurred as a result of smoking, understanding individuals who have died as a result of smoking is essential, as it provides analysis on the substances contained in the tobacco that can cause death to a person, the available funds and amount of money that has been used to execute some initiatives in the country (Buchanan, 2014). The allocated funds will provide details as well as the required resources to implement the policy. Also, the level of prevalence of the health issue is essential information that can assist in public policy planning (Buchanan, 2014). As it will provide an overview as well as different measures shareholders can take to control the matter among the people. The high number of people involved in the issue and how it affects them is relevant information which can assist in formulating a given policy.


Buchanan DR. (2014).An Ethic for Health Promotion: Rethinking the Sources of Human Well Being. New York: Oxford University Press

Easterling D, Gallagher K, Drisko J, Johnson T.(2010). Promoting Health by Building Capacity: Evidence and Implications for Grantmakers. 2(1).pp.1-20

Health assessment report. (2003). Adult smoking. Retrieved from

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